File Name: theories related to social cognition and learning .zip
Social learning theory is a theory of learning process and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
- Social cognitive theory
- Behavioral Change Models
- Social learning theory
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Social Cognitive Theory proposes that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information Nevid, According to Bandura , social cognitive theory takes on an agent-like perspective to change, development and adaptation. Social Cognitive Theory was presented by Bandura in response to his dissatisfaction with the principles of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. In these two theories, the role of cognition in motivation and the role of the situation are largely ignored Bandura, ; as cited in Redmond,
Social cognitive theory
Social cognitive theory is a theory of psychological functioning that emphasizes learning from the social environment. Persons use various vicarious, symbolic, and self-regulatory processes as they strive to develop a sense of agency in their lives. Key motivational processes are goals and self-evaluations of progress, outcome expectations, values, social comparisons, and self-efficacy. People set goals and evaluate their goal progress. The perception of progress sustains self-efficacy and motivation. Individuals act in accordance with their values and strive for outcomes they desire.
It developed into the SCT in and posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior. The unique feature of SCT is the emphasis on social influence and its emphasis on external and internal social reinforcement. SCT considers the unique way in which individuals acquire and maintain behavior, while also considering the social environment in which individuals perform the behavior. The theory takes into account a person's past experiences, which factor into whether behavioral action will occur. These past experiences influences reinforcements, expectations, and expectancies, all of which shape whether a person will engage in a specific behavior and the reasons why a person engages in that behavior. Many theories of behavior used in health promotion do not consider maintenance of behavior, but rather focus on initiating behavior.
Behavioral Change Models
Social cognitive theory SCT , used in psychology , education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. This theory was advanced by Albert Bandura as an extension of his social learning theory. The theory states that when people observe a model performing a behavior and the consequences of that behavior, they remember the sequence of events and use this information to guide subsequent behaviors. Observing a model can also prompt the viewer to engage in behavior they already learned. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, the observer may choose to replicate behavior modeled. Media provides models for a vast array of people in many different environmental settings. The conceptual roots for social cognitive theory come from Edwin B.
Social learning theory
These theories share an emphasis on the complex interaction among cognitive events and processes, affect, overt behavior, and environmental contexts and events as underlying various facets of dysfunctional behavior. Similarly, these different theories agree that learning has a pivotal role in the acquisition and maintenance of deviant and adaptive behavior, and like operant theories but to a lesser degree , they recognize the importance of environmental consequences—particularly those provided by the social environment—in these processes. Unlike operant theories, however, cognitive social learning CSL theories postulate that most learning is a function of how the individual cognitively processes stimulus and consequence information.
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January 22, Staff Writers. Educational psychologists study learners and learning contexts — both within and beyond traditional classrooms — and evaluate ways in which factors such as age, culture, gender, and physical and social environments influence human learning. They leverage educational theory and practice based on the latest research related to human development to understand the emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of human learning. Educational psychology can influence programs, curricula, and lesson development, as well as classroom management approaches. In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods. However, educational psychologists can also pursue careers as researchers, consultants, and teachers in a variety of contexts, including schools, community organizations, government research centers, and learning centers. Although the discipline of educational psychology includes numerous theories, many experts identify five main schools of thought: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, experientialism, and social contextual learning theories.
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