Oral Radiology Principles And Interpretation White Pharoah Pdf

oral radiology principles and interpretation white pharoah pdf

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The second half of the book focuses on how to recognize the radiographic features of pathologic conditions and interpret radiographs accurately. This edition also includes new chapters on forensics and cone-beam imaging.

Emergence of coronavirus disease pandemic has had its effects on many aspects of life. The practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology has also been affected by the ongoing pandemic. This letter to editor highlights some of the challenges of oral and maxillofacial radiology during this era.

White and Pharoah’s Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation

Emergence of coronavirus disease pandemic has had its effects on many aspects of life. The practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology has also been affected by the ongoing pandemic.

This letter to editor highlights some of the challenges of oral and maxillofacial radiology during this era. Dental practices have been affected by the coronavirus disease COVID outbreak and have mostly been limited to emergency treatments, such as management of pain and infection by endodontic or surgical approaches and treatment of patients with trauma [ 1 ].

Imaging plays an important role in this setting for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, oral and maxillofacial radiology clinics need to adapt strategies to continue their services during this critical time. Current evidence for avoiding cross infections in dentistry suggests to prefer extraoral radiography or cone-beam computed tomography CBCT over intraoral radiographs [ 2 ] since peri-apical radiographs are more prone to stimulate salivary production.

If intraoral images are required, use of antimicrobial solutions before obtaining radiographs must be considered [ 3 ]. During intraoral radiography, irritation of the palatal mucosa must be minimized to reduce the risk of gag reflex or coughing [ 4 , 5 ]. Meticulous infection control procedures must be implemented for all radiographic procedures [ 6 ].

Moreover, the radiology unit needs to be well ventilated and conform to general requirements of dental offices [ 2 ]. Another important point is eliminating hard copies of radiographs. Films and papers can be a vehicle for cross-contamination when handled by individuals or placed on surfaces. Digital picture archiving and communication system PACS is a network of computers and servers used to manage digital images [ 7 ]. The PACS workflow is able to digitally transfer radiographic images to several users, thus eliminating the need for radiographic hard copies.

Teleradiology is another technique defined as interpretation of radiographic images, which were obtained far from the facility. During the pandemic, teleradiology has been widely used for diagnostic purposes of COVID patients, for consultations with radiologists in emergency cases, or management of distance between radiology clinics.

Dentists can receive the digital radiographic images of their emergency patients through online services either by email or messaging applications to view in their smart phones, laptops, or other electronic devices.

However, several factors must be taken into account for viewing radiographic images through these media. It is better to interpret images in a room with reduced ambient lighting [ 11 ] with optimized brightness of the screen.

Most current smartphones provide adequate conditions for optimal image interpretation [ 12 ]. A key point in sending the radiographs using messaging apps or emails in ensuring the image quality is preserved during electronic transfer. Some studies have shown that images sent via these applications can be optimally interpreted [ 13 , 14 ].

Another factor when using online platforms is security of the transferred data. Imaging data can be hijacked either from the recipient party or while transferring through insecure means. Using end-to-end encrypted transfer applications and paying attention to who has access to the device withholding patient protected information help to prevent such instances. Not applicable. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors. Publisher's Note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Oral Radiol. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Parisa Soltani, Email: ri. Corresponding author. Received Nov 17; Accepted Jan 4. This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.

Abstract Emergence of coronavirus disease pandemic has had its effects on many aspects of life. Author contributions The authors have jointly prepared the manuscript. Funding None. Compliance with ethical standards Conflicts of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval Not applicable. Footnotes Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

References 1. J Dent Res. Patini R. How to face the post-SARS-CoV-2 outbreak era in private dental practice: current evidence for avoiding cross-infections. Efficacy of preprocedural mouthrinses in the reduction of microorganisms in aerosol: a systematic review.

J Am Dent Assoc. Hamedani S, Farshidfar N. J Dent Sci. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation. Amsterdam: Elsevier; Carter C, Veale B. Digital radiography and PACS e-book. J Am Coll Radiol. Humanitarian teleradiology.

Curr Radiol Rep. Gasparoni A, Kanellis MJ. Covid and dental emergencies: reflections on teledentistry. Braz Dent Sci. Some current legal issues that may affect oral and maxillofacial radiology. Part 2: digital monitors and cone-beam computed tomography.

J Can Dent Assoc. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology. Eur J Radiol. WhatsApp messenger as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine: an overview. Interact J Med Res. WhatsApp messenger is useful and reproducible in the assessment of tibial plateau fractures: inter- and intra-observer agreement study.

Int J Med Inform. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Download Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation 7th Edition PDF Free

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Du kanske gillar. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. Written specifically for dentists, White and Pharoah's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation 8th Edition incorporates over 1, high-quality radiographic images and illustrations to demonstrate core concepts and essential principles and techniques of oral and maxillofacial radiology. The new edition of this bestselling book delivers with state-of-the-art information on oral radiology principles and techniques, and image interpretation. Dental student will gain a solid foundation in radiation physics, radiation biology, and radiation safety and protection before introducing including specialized techniques such as MRI and CT.

تحميل كتاب Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation

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