File Name: martin luther king jr love law and civil disobedience .zip
I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God-consciousness and never-ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws.
- Civil disobedience
- Civil Disobedience
- Transcript of Dr. Martin Luther King's speech at SMU on March 17, 1966
- The Power of Peace: Thoreau, Gandhi, and King
If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.
I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God-consciousness and never-ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion?
Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham.
I felt that the white ministers, priests and rabbis of the South would be among our strongest allies. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. Letter from birmingham jail annotated bibliography!!
Let me take note of my other major disappointment. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham.
If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends.
But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists.
If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be.
Over and over I have found myself asking: "What kind of people worship here? I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. To put it in the terms of St.
Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek.
I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? Before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here.
Last Modified on October 8, If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best-known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement.
This is certainly a legitimate concern. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts.
We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal. Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas.
They were too God-intoxicated to be "astronomically intimidated. Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery?
If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake.
The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. And because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound.
Letter from Birmingham Jail Dr. King was arrested in in the struggle for civil rights for African-Americans. Will we be extremist for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained-glass windows.
An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and through fear of being nonconformists. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season.
I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all. They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws.
How could I do otherwise? Any law that uplifts human personality is just. As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us.
How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice.
They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience' sake. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. Letter From Birmingham Jail Annotated usa telephone goldsboro nc You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence.
To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.
But the latter consistently refused to engage in good-faith negotiation. While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely.
First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. Why sit-ins, marches and so forth? My Dear Fellow Clergymen: I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. City of Birmingham, and the Letter from Birmingham Jail. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. PDF downloads of all LitCharts literature guides, and of every new one we publish.
In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs. He told me why he was there and what he was there for. And now this approach is being termed extremist. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary.
Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers. Some have asked: "Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act? There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather "nonviolently" in public.
I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct-action program could be delayed no longer.
Though the two men never got a chance to meet King was 19 when Gandhi was assassinated , King learned about Gandhi through his writing and a trip to India in He affirmed that it is possible to resist evil without resorting to violence and to oppose evil itself without opposing the people committing evil. Research and Education Institute at Stanford University. In the late s, future congressman John Lewis studied Gandhi in nonviolence workshops led by activist James Lawson. These workshops prepared Lewis for the sit-ins he and other students would later hold at lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee.
To the distinguished president of Southern Methodist University, Dr. Tate, members of the faculty and members of the student body, ladies and gentlemen. I need not pause to say how very delighted and honored I am to be on the campus of this great institution of learning and to be a part of your lecture series. And I certainly want to express my personal appreciation to Mr. Moore and Mr. Cox and all of you for extending the invitation. It is always a very rich and rewarding experience when I can take a brief break from the day-to-day demands of our struggle for freedom and human dignity and discuss the issues involved in that struggle with college and university students and concerned people of goodwill all over the country and all over the world.
Martin Luther King Jr. In , he received a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. King pushed America to fulfill its promise of equal rights for all. We honor his life and his legacy by recommitting ourselves to keeping his dream alive. That is an important step.
Transcript of Dr. Martin Luther King's speech at SMU on March 17, 1966
The issue of active protests against the injustice of the law aimed at bringing about a change in that conduct is of great relevance for members of the world society. There is no escape from admitting the fact that even the most perfect political system may and will from time to time produce unjust laws. What is as yet unclear is the principles of justification in favour of a civil disobedient who commits an open breach of that laws.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, a frenzy of support for the Mexican-American War swept across the United States. But a small minority were unhappy. They saw the war as an act of violent aggression against a weak, neighboring country.
Connect around topics like civics, public policy, economics and more. The most effective way to secure a freer America with more opportunity for all is through engaging, educating, and empowering our youth. And the most effective way to achieve that is through investing in The Bill of Rights Institute. We contribute to teachers and students by providing valuable resources, tools, and experiences that promote civic engagement through a historical framework.
The Power of Peace: Thoreau, Gandhi, and King
Это все равно что изучать иностранный язык. Сначала текст воспринимается как полная бессмыслица, но по мере постижения законов построения его структуры начинает появляться смысл. Беккер понимающе кивнул, но ему хотелось знать. Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии. Она начала с совершенного квадрата Юлия Цезаря. Цезарь, объясняла она, был первым в истории человеком, использовавшим шифр. Когда его посыльные стали попадать в руки врага имеете с его секретными посланиями, он придумал примитивный способ шифровки своих указаний.
Ты ничего не понимаешь! - кричал Хейл. - На его компьютере уже стоял жучок! - Он говорил, стараясь, чтобы его слова были слышны между сигналами. - Этот жучок вмонтировал кто-то другой, и я подозреваю, что по распоряжению директора Фонтейна.
Разница между 238 и 235 - три. Все подняли головы. - Три! - крикнула Сьюзан, перекрывая оглушающую какофонию сирен и чьих-то голосов. Она показала на экран. Все глаза были устремлены на нее, на руку Танкадо, протянутую к людям, на три пальца, отчаянно двигающихся под севильским солнцем. Джабба замер. - О Боже! - Он внезапно понял, что искалеченный гений все это время давал им ответ.