Basic Concepts Of Hubs Switches Gateways And Routers Pdf

basic concepts of hubs switches gateways and routers pdf

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In an Ethernet network, there are some networking devices that play their roles at various levels such as hubs, switches and routers.

Repeater — A repeater operates at the physical layer. Its job is to regenerate the signal over the same network before the signal becomes too weak or corrupted so as to extend the length to which the signal can be transmitted over the same network. An important point to be noted about repeaters is that they do not amplify the signal.

What's the Difference? Hub vs Switch vs Router

The key difference between hubs, switches and bridges is that hubs operate at Layer 1 of the OSI model, while bridges and switches work with MAC addresses at Layer 2.

Hubs broadcast incoming traffic on all ports, whereas bridges and switches only route traffic towards their addressed destinations. Hubs provide a dedicated physical connection for every device, which helps reduce the possibility that a failure of one computer will cause all computers to lose connectivity. However, because a hub is still a shared bandwidth device, connectivity is limited to half-duplex.

Collisions remain an issue as well, so hubs do not help improve the performance of the network. Hubs are essentially multiport repeaters. They ignore the content of an Ethernet frame and simply resend every frame they receive out of every interface on the hub. The challenge is that the Ethernet frames will show up at every device attached to a hub, instead of just the intended destination a security gap , and inbound frames often collide with outbound frames a performance issue.

In the physical world, a bridge connects roads on separate sides of a river or railroad tracks. In the technical world, bridges connect two physical network segments. Each network bridge keeps track of the MAC addresses on the network attached to each of its interfaces. When network traffic arrives at the bridge and its target address is local to that side of the bridge, the bridge filters that Ethernet frame, so it stays on the local side of the bridge only.

If the bridge is unable to find the target address on the side that received the traffic, it forwards the frame across the bridge, hoping the destination will be on the other network segment. At times, there are multiple bridges to cross to get to the destination system.

The big challenge is that broadcast and multicast traffic must be forwarded across each bridge, so every device has an opportunity to read those messages. If the network manager builds redundant circuits, it often results in a flood of broadcast or multicast traffic, preventing unicast traffic flow. Switches play a vital role in moving data from one device to another. Specifically, switches greatly improve network performance compared to hubs, by providing dedicated bandwidth to each end device, supporting full-duplex connectivity, utilizing the MAC address table to make forwarding decisions, and utilizing ASICs and CAM tables to increase the rate at which frames can be processed.

Switches use the best of hubs and bridges while adding more abilities. They use the multi-port ability of the hub with the filtering of a bridge, allowing only the destination to see the unicast traffic. Switches allow redundant links and, thanks to Spanning Tree Protocol STP developed for bridges, broadcasts and multicasts run without causing storms.

Switches keep track of the MAC addresses in each interface so they can rapidly send the traffic only to the frame's destination. Learn more about how switches work. View All Articles. My GK. Checkout Cart Loading Create an Account Forgot Your Password? Access MyGK. Date: Dec. What's the difference between hubs, switches and bridges? What is a hub? What is a bridge?

What is a switch? What are the benefits of switches? What is a Hub? What is a Bridge? What is a Switch? Here are some of the benefits of using switches: Switches are plug-and-play devices. They begin learning the interface or port to reach the desired address as soon as the first packet arrives. Switches improve security by sending traffic only to the addressed device.

Switches provide an easy way to connect segments that run at different speeds, such as 10 Mbps, Mbps, 1 Gigabit, and 10 Gigabit networks. Switches use special chips to make their decisions in hardware making low processing delays and faster performance. Switches are replacing routers inside networks because they are more than 10 times faster at forwarding frames on Ethernet networks.

Related courses to develop these skills Understanding Networking Fundamentals course - Develop comprehensive understandings of fundamental networking concepts our exclusive hands-on course.

Network Devices

Hub is one of the basic icons of networking devices which works at physical layer and hence connect networking devices physically together. They are designed to transmit the packets to the other appended devices without altering any of the transmitted packets received. They act as pathways to direct electrical signals to travel along. They transmit the information regardless of the fact if data packet is destined for the device connected or not. Active Hub: They are smarter than the passive hubs. They not only provide the path for the data signals infact they regenerate, concentrate and strengthen the signals before sending them to their destinations. Passive Hub: They are more like point contact for the wires to built in the physical network.

We have compiled the most frequently asked Networking Interview Questions and Answers that will help you to prepare for the Networking basics interview questions that an interviewer might ask you during your interview. In this list of Networking interview questions, we have covered all commonly asked basic and advanced interview questions on networking with detailed answers to help you clear the job interview. This detailed guide of Network Engineer interview questions will help you to crack your Job interview easily. A link refers to the connectivity between two devices. It includes the type of cables and protocols used for one device to be able to communicate with the other. A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure that is designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles the management of bandwidth and multiple channels.


Network Devices (Hub, Repeater, Bridge, Switch, Router, Gateways and Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews.


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Networking hardware , also known as network equipment or computer networking devices , are electronic devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data transmission in a computer network. Networking devices includes a broad range of equipment which can be classified as core network components which interconnect other network components, hybrid components which can be found in the core or border of a network and hardware or software components which typically sit on the connection point of different networks.

The key difference between hubs, switches and bridges is that hubs operate at Layer 1 of the OSI model, while bridges and switches work with MAC addresses at Layer 2. Hubs broadcast incoming traffic on all ports, whereas bridges and switches only route traffic towards their addressed destinations. Hubs provide a dedicated physical connection for every device, which helps reduce the possibility that a failure of one computer will cause all computers to lose connectivity. However, because a hub is still a shared bandwidth device, connectivity is limited to half-duplex. Collisions remain an issue as well, so hubs do not help improve the performance of the network.

Network Devices

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Computer Networking Devices Explained with Function

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Explain how hubs and switches can be connected to create larger networks. ✓ Describe how bridges, routers, and gateways work. ✓ Describe how routing protocols are and functionality. Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying the functions they perform are essential skills for any network.


5 COMMENTS

Rocco M.

REPLY

In the list of the networking devices, NIC stands on the first place.

Vail C.

REPLY

There are different types of electronic devices are used in networking which are known as network devices or network equipment.

Marisa K.

REPLY

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Rafael D.

REPLY

A network switch also called switching hub , bridging hub , and, by the IEEE , MAC bridge [1] is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device.

Marvin P.

REPLY

Hardware devices that are used to connect computers, printers, fax machines and other electronic devices to a network are called network devices.

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