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- Intermittent fasting: Surprising update
- Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes
- Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease
- 10 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting
It then outlines how these changes may benefit individuals with a variety of disease states. Intermittent fasting, as defined by review authors Rafael de Cabo and Mark P. Mattson, is a period of food restriction sufficient to clear liver glycogen stores and dramatically suppress glucose, insulin, and amino acid uptake by cells.
Intermittent fasting: Surprising update
Sanjukta Mishra 1 and Bratati Singh 2. Periods of voluntary abstinence from food and drink is called fasting. It has been practised across the globe since ancient times and has long been integral to many religious and ethnic cultures. Out of the three widely studied strategies of fasting like caloric restriction CR , dietary restriction DR , and intermittent fasting IF , IF continues to gain attention with new evidences from research works and clinical trials.
Several preclinical and clinical studies consistently show disease modifying efficacy of IF, along with increased longevity. Furthermore, many recent reviews provide an integrated perspectives on potential benefits of IF as a promising weight loss method. Several animal model studies have suggested beneficial effect of IF on health span and consistently show disease modifying efficacy on wide range of chronic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative brain diseases, although magnitude of the effect varies.
Health consequences in human studies include minimal changes in weight and marginal improvement in metabolic markers. Periodic flipping of metabolic switching not only provides ketone bodies as a fuel source during fasting period, but also regulates expression of many proteins and molecules that can influence health and aging. Overall objective of this review article is to provide an overview of the health benefits of IF from animal models and recent clinical trials, with a focus on the underlying major metabolic changes associated with it.
Moreover IF may come up with a promising non-pharmacological approach to improve health with multiple public health benefits. Mishra S, Singh B. Biomed Pharmacol J ;13 3. Obesity has become a worldwide major health problem in adults as well as in adolescents due to many social determinants like urbanisation, surplus energy intake, and sedentary life style.
Fasting is partial or total wilful refrain from eating for a period of time. So commonly it is called as intermittent calorie restriction [ICR]. A systematic review by Davis et al found that dietary plan by IF can lead to significant weight loss. Overall objective of this paper is to provide an overview of health benefits of IF with a focus on the findings of the evidences, based on animal model and human intervention studies.
This may provide some practical information regarding the disease modifying efficacy of IF, which may help in prescribing it to the patients with metabolic disorders.
Moreover conclusion drawn from the evidence linked IF, can be implemented as a framework for future research on this topic. Fasting has remained a Centre point owing to the potential non-pharmacological strategy to improve health and to increase longevity. IF is a promising strategy among different approaches of fasting such as calorie restriction, dietary restriction and IF.
This emerging avenue of research, comprises calorie restrictions for several hours a day, alternating days or several days a week. After meal, glucose is the primary energy source for most tissues during day.
During fasting, stored triglyceride [TAG] in adipose tissues gets converted into fatty acid, which represents an alternative fuel source for many organs like liver, brain, muscle etc.
This mechanism has been elucidated by Randle, who proposed the concept of glucose-fatty acid cycle during feeding-fasting phase. FFA released into circulation, are transported into hepatocytes to get converted to ketone bodies [acetone, aceto acetic acid, beta hydroxy butyric acid BHBA ].
So ketone bodies provide a major source of energy for many tissues, especially brain during fasting. Energy restriction stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial uncoupling, thereby promotes cell survival, which support improvement in health and diseases.
But IF protocol, duration and baseline and characteristics of the sample protocol varies greatly. So despite the statistical significance in weight loss, question arises whether the benefits of IF are due to metabolic switching or due to weight loss. In the interim, clinical significance and practicality of IF regimes are questionable. Those apart, long episodes of fasting may lead to intake of large portion of unhealthy food, so some studies suggest psychosocial implication like depression.
Click here to view figure Effect on Insulin sensitivity. Insulin hormone exerts metabolic flexibility by regulating fat and glucose switching. As it is already known that effect of IF if often regarded to be driven by reduction in body weight and fat, so IF might be more beneficial to persons with high IR, who are likely to progress to DM.
In animal models, IF improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates diabetic complications. Thus while some animal studies suggest an association between IF and insulin sensitivity, the results may not be extrapolated to humans. Oxidative stress is the disparity between production of reactive oxygen species [ROS] and anti-oxidant defence. ROS are produced as a by product during energy generation within mitochondria through electron transport chain [ETC].
Animal model study demonstrates that IF and Calorie reduction may result in beneficial adaptive changes that include activation of AMPK, mitochondrial network and peroxisome remodelling and increased production of antioxidant enzymes. This decarboxylates transcription factor forehead OS FOXOs and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor PGC-1alpha , resulting in the expression of gene involved in stress resistance and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Preclinical study by Mattson et al on IF explained improved function and resistance of animal cell to metabolic, oxidative and proteotoxic stress. Many animal studies have revealed the fact that reduced food intake has increased the overall life span.
The effects of caloric restriction on life span vary and affected by sex, diet, age and genetic factors. SIRT1 is an enzyme that may be implicated in human longevity. Post intervention sera also had decreased proliferation, increased stress resistance and up regulation of longevity inducing genes, suggesting a role of IF in aging and longevity.
The two groups lost similar weight during 6 months period. But the group with IF has greater increase in insulin sensitivity and more reduction in waist circumference. Preclinical studies in animal models consistently show robust disease modifying efficacy of IF on a wide range of clinical disorders like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative brain diseases etc.
Apart from this, clinical trials on cancer are in progress, which is evident from a recent study that explains therapeutic perspectives of IF on cancer cells by inhibiting their growth by reducing the signal through insulin and growth hormone receptor and enhancement of nuclear factor erythroniumrelated factor 2 NRF2. Johnson et al. There are recent pilot studies showing improvement of autoimmune disease with reduced symptoms in as short a period of two months of.
Change of eating pattern to be contemplated by patients is one big challenge. Secondly patients switching to IF may experience hunger, irritability during this period. That apart, further research is indeed needed to justify the health claim of IF on human beings, as most data is from research in animal models.
Recently IF has been gaining popularity as an alternative strategy for achieving and maintaining weight reduction. There are indeed a large number of researches to support health benefits of IF, though most of it have been conducted on animals. But still results have been promising. Objective of the present review article is to provide an overview of IF, its key effects on metabolism and the health benefits, which will be an inspiration for future studies on this avenue.
Many scientific studies have been carried out to assess the impact of IF and were observed to provoke beneficial outcomes in prolonging lifespan. In fact, IF may improve health and longevity by increasing resistance against oxidative stress and by decreasing inflammation at cellular level. It is hypothesised that cell and organ system adapt to this bioenergetics challenge by activating signalling pathway that enhances mitochondrial function, stress resistance and antioxidant defence.
Clinical trials suggest that organism responds to IF by minimising anabolic processes [like synthesis, growth and reproduction] and enhancing maintenance and repair.
However the magnitude of effect can be influenced by diet, sex, age, and genetic factors. Furthermore it can be the most appropriate method for its capability to ameliorate different lifestyle disorders like diabetes, cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and renal diseases. Studies of the mechanism of calorie restriction and IF in animal models have led to development and testing of pharmacological interventions that mimic the health and disease modifying benefits of IF.
Several trials are currently underway that vary greatly on their duration and prescribed protocol. Mostly trials have been of moderate sample size and limited duration. More so studies have been conducted in diverse population, showing mixed results.
Therefore the important clinical and scientific question is whether adoption of a regular IF regimen is a feasible and sustainable population based strategy for promoting metabolic health and whether they support long term weight management or not. Maintenance of IF regimen, when combined with regular exercise, may result in many long term adaptations that improve mental, physical performance and increase disease resistance.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by authors. So for this type of study, formal consent is not required. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
Copy the following to cite this article: Mishra S, Singh B. Click here to view figure.
Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes
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Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease
Interested in receiving weekly updates about the Cardiometabolic Disease and Diabetes Center of Excellence? One of the oldest therapies on earth is fasting which this review summarizes the benefits. The combination of reducing calories and stimulating a metabolic switch from food to fast stimulates a regenerative process that helps reduce inflammation, repair the nervous system, improve insulin function and impair cancer growth. With the epidemic diseases associated with too many calories, any therapy that will encourage reducing this excess is going to have significant benefits for many people.
Studies in humans, almost across the board, have shown that IF is safe and incredibly effective, but really no more effective than any other diet. In addition, many people find it difficult to fast. But a growing body of research suggests that the timing of the fast is key, and can make IF a more realistic, sustainable, and effective approach for weight loss, as well as for diabetes prevention. IF as a weight loss approach has been around in various forms for ages, but was highly popularized in by BBC broadcast journalist Dr.
For example, your body initiates important cellular repair processes and changes hormone levels to make stored body fat more accessible. Many of the benefits of intermittent fasting are related to these changes in hormones, gene expression and function of cells.
10 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting
Sanjukta Mishra 1 and Bratati Singh 2. Periods of voluntary abstinence from food and drink is called fasting. It has been practised across the globe since ancient times and has long been integral to many religious and ethnic cultures.
Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc. Intermittent fasting IF encompasses eating patterns in which individuals go extended time periods e. We use the term periodic fasting PF to refer to IF with periods of fasting or fasting mimicking diets lasting from 2 to as many as 21 or more days. In laboratory rats and mice IF and PF have profound beneficial effects on many different indices of health and, importantly, can counteract disease processes and improve functional outcome in experimental models of a wide range of age-related disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's disease and stroke.
Intermittent fasting means that you don't eat for a period of time each day or week. Some popular approaches to intermittent fasting include:. Some studies suggest that alternate-day fasting is about as effective as a typical low-calorie diet for weight loss. That seems reasonable because reducing the number of calories you eat should help you lose weight. Can intermittent fasting improve your health?
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Intermittent fasting for obesity and related disorders: unveiling myths, facts, and presumptions. Intermittent fasting IF is an increasingly popular method of weight loss, as an alternative to daily caloric restriction DCR. Several forms of IF exist, such as alternate-day fasting or time-restricted feeding regimens. Some of its proponents claim several health benefits unrelated to caloric restriction or weight loss, which rely mainly on animal models. Although several studies published in the last few years confirm that IF can be a useful and safe therapeutical option for obesity and related disorders, no superiority to conventional caloric restriction diets have emerged. There are still several questions left answered.
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