File Name: romeo and juliet full play .zip
First performed around , Romeo and Juliet has been adapted as a ballet, an opera, the musical West Side Story , and a dozen films. The Chorus introduces the play by describing two rival families in Verona. A fight breaks out between members of the Capulet and Montague houses, and Prince Escalus demands all fighting stop. Benvolio vows to help Romeo forget Rosaline.
Romeo and Juliet Scenes
Cristopher Lerma. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Speakers of different Romance languages such as French, Spanish, or Italian , and all other related but not identical tongues,all experience these difficulties,as well as the difficulty of understanding a text written in their own language five, or six, or seven hundred years earlier.
Shakespeare's English is not yet so old that it requires, like many historical texts in French and German, or like Old English texts-for example, Beowulf -a modern translation. Much poetry evaporates in translation: language is immensely particular. The sheer sound of Dante in thirteenthcentury Italian is profoundly worth preserving. So too is the sound of Shakespeare. I have annotated prosody metrics only when it seemed truly necessary or particularly helpful.
The notation used for prosody, which is also used in the explanation of Elizabethan pronunciation, follows the extremely simple form of my From Stress to Stress:An Autobiography of English Prosody see "Further Reading," near the end of this book. Syllables with metrical stress are capitalized; all other syllables are in lowercase letters. I have managed to employ normal Elizabethan spellings, in most indications of pronunciation, but I have sometimes been obliged to deviate, in the higher interest of being understood.
I have annotated, as well, a limited number of such other matters, sometimes of interpretation, sometimes of general or historical relevance, as have seemed to me seriously worthy of inclusion. These annotations have been most carefully restricted: this is not intended to be a book of literary commentary. It is for that reason that the glossing of metaphors has been severely restricted. To yield to temptation might well be to double or triple the size of this book-and would also change it from a historically oriented language guide to a work of an unsteadily mixed nature.
In the process, I believe, neither language nor literature would be well or clearly served. Where it seemed useful, and not obstructive of important textual matters, I have modernized spelling, including capitalization. I have frequently repunctuated. Since the original printed texts of Romeo and Juliet there not being, as there never are for Shakespeare, surviving manuscripts are frequently careless as well as self-contradictory, I have been relatively free with the wording of stage directions -and in some cases have added small directions, to indicate who is speaking to whom.
I have made no emendations; I have necessarily been obliged to make choices. Textual decisions have been annotated when the differences between or among the original printed texts seem either marked or of unusual interest. Readers may easily track down the first annotation, using the brief Finding List at the back of the book. Words with entirely separate meanings are annotated only for meanings no longer current in Modern English.
There is an alphabetically arranged listing of such words and phrases in the Finding List at the back of the book. The Finding List contains no annotations but simply gives the words or phrases themselves and the numbers of the relevant act,the scene within that act,and the footnote number within that scene for the word's first occurrence. It is entirely fitting, to be sure, that her love is not depicted in precisely the same terms as his. She can be his sun, moon, and stars, but an Elizabethan woman views her beloved as her "lord.
She apologizes to Romeo for her forwardness. Romeo is reverential, gentle, respectful. But he does not apologize for his sweeping passion. If, as often happens, the lover did not have the same powerful effect on his or her beloved, love was unilateral and largely unsatisfiable. What factors made for receptivity were left vague and largely undiscussed. Love happened, or it did not. The party or parties involved knew with great clarity what they knew, once they had been stricken; nothing else counted.
Like so many developments in human existence, life's directions were subject to unknowable forces-destiny, fate, or astrological configurations. Rebellion against such outwardly determined directions was always possible. But not successful: fatalism was not simply another way of looking at life but a recognition of fundamental reality. Far from being wantons, accordingly, Romeo and Juliet were fortunate to find one another, just as they were unfortunate in other ways.
Rosaline-Romeo's unseen, unheard, but often referred to-initial beloved,was to the Renaissance mind someone our hero plainly loved only conceptually, intellectually. That sort of "love" was not and could not be genuine, profound, and soul shaking.
Nor was it generally reciprocated. It was a mere game. They bled from them, which is a very different affair entirely. Love was not to be casually identified with mere happiness. The comparative youth of Romeo and, especially, of Juliet is yet another non-issue. Count Paris appears to be younger than Romeo, and to my knowledge, no one has ever suggested that his unreciprocated but apparently genuine love for Juliet is in any way immature.
The critical focus is of course largely on Juliet, who is not quite fourteen. But not only do human females mature biologically at a much more rapid pace than do human males, they also mature emotionally at roughly corresponding speed.
Wives have always tended to be younger than husbands; legal limits on marriageable age a relatively recent development tend to recognize and enforce custom. In the southern states of the United States,not so long ago,males were permitted to marry at sixteen, females at fourteen. It is generally accepted that maturation accelerates in warmer climates-and Shakespeare's play is set in Italy. Indeed, Mary Queen of Scots had been married at fifteen.
For a marriage to be permissible, in England at that time, the minimal age was "at least 14 for a boy and 12 for a girl. In the fifteenth century a daughter unmarried at fifteen was a family disgrace.
Lawrence Stone's analysis of these lovers' downfall does not fully explain the play, but it does highlight a social vector that we in our time often neglect: "To an Elizabethan audience the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. It is written that the shoemaker should meddle with his yard and the tailor with his last, the fisher with his pencil and the painter with his nets, but I am sent to find those persons whose names are here writ,and can never find what names the writing person hath here writ" 1.
Still, it is only Juliet's Nurse, among the play's servants, whose role assumes major proportions. Having spent all fourteen of Juliet's years in relatively intimate association with the Capulet family, she has taken on a status poised somewhere between aristocratic and plebian. It is the Nurse to whom Lady Capulet hands the keys to locked store rooms-keys necessarily denied to mere servants, since locking such doors is expressly intended, and perfectly understood by everyone, to keep servants from stealing 4.
It is the Nurse who is admitted to Lady Capulet's "counsel" with her daughter 1. May one not speak? And perhaps most impressively,it is the Nurse who participates essentially as an equal in the quasi-choral dirge spoken for Juliet by Capulet,Lady Capulet,.
Romeo and Juliet was, in the words of our time, a smash hit. The tension of the entire introduction xxv play, while we await the kiss of fire and powder which will consume its most precious persons, is maintained at an endurable point by the simplicity with which sorrow is made lyric.
Even the conceits ['metaphors'] of Romeo and Juliet sound like things that they and they alone would say. Chorus Two households, both alike in dignity, 2 In fair 3 Verona, where we lay our scene, 4 From ancient grudge 5 break to new mutiny, 6 Where civil 7 blood makes civil 8 hands unclean.
The fearful 18 passage 19 of their death-marked love, And the continuance of their parents' rage, Which, but 20 their children's end, naught 21 could remove, Is now the two hours' traffic 22 of our stage, The which if you with patient ears attend, 23 What here shall miss, 24 our toil shall strive to mend. Three civil 88 brawls, bred of 89 an airy 90 word By thee, old Capulet, and Montague, Have thrice disturbed the quiet of our streets And made Verona's ancient 91 citizens Cast by 92 their grave, 93 beseeming ornaments 94 To wield old partisans, in hands as 95 old, Cankered 96 with peace, to part 97 your cankered 98 hate.
If ever you disturb our streets again Your lives shall pay 99 the forfeit of the peace. For this time all the rest depart away. Could we but learn from whence his sorrows grow We would as willingly give cure as know. So please you step aside, I'll know his grievance, or be much denied.
This love feel I, that feel no love in this. Dost thou not laugh? BenvolioNo, coz, I rather weep. Romeo Good heart, at what? BenvolioAt thy good heart's oppression.
Let two more summers wither 6 in their pride Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride. ParisYounger than she are happy mothers made. Capulet And too soon marred 7 are those so early made. The earth hath swallowed all my hopes 8 but she: She is the hopeful 9 lady of my earth.
My will to her consent is but a part. Benvolio Tut, man, one fire burns out another's burning, One pain is lessened by another's 41 anguish. One look and the lover has fallen; one mutual look, and love sweeps both lovers away. Romeo What, shall this speech be spoke 1 for our excuse? Or shall we on 2 without apology?
Benvolio The date is out of such prolixity. I am not for this ambling. Dun's the mouse, the constable's own word. Come, we burn daylight, 59 ho! Romeo Nay, that's not so.
Romeo and Juliet
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SCENE Verona: Mantua. Page 3. Volume III Book IX. 5. Romeo and Juliet.
Romeo and Juliet by: William Shakespeare.pdf
In Renaissance-era Verona, Italy, two noble families, the Montagues and Capulets, are locked in a bitter and ancient feud whose origin no one alive can recall. Every year, the Capulets throw a masquerade ball. The Montagues are, of course, not invited. As Capulet and Lady Capulet fuss over the arrangements for the party, ensuring that everything is perfect for their friends and guests, they hope that their daughter Juliet will fall in love with the handsome count Paris at the ball.
SAMPSON True; and therefore women, being the weaker vessels, are ever thrust to the wall: therefore I will push Montague's men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall. Draw thy tool! I will bite my thumb at them; which is a disgrace to them, if they bear it. But now, my lord, what say you to my suit?
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Infuriated citizens begin hitting at the brawlers on both sides, as Capulet and Montague themselves enter the fray. The anarchy only ceases when the Prince himself arrives and orders an end to the fighting, threatening both Capulet and Montague with death if another battle erupts. Montague, his wife and Benvolio are left alone as the others depart. Benvolio explains how the fight began, and is able to reassure his aunt that Romeo was not present. Seeing Romeo arrive, his parents leave to give Benvolio a clear field. Benvolio advises him to find some better-looking women to run after, but Romeo insists there are none. Enter Sampson and Gregory, with swords and bucklers, of the house of Capulet.
We have divided our character list into two main groups representing the House of Montague and the House of Capulet. These great rival families are at the very heart of this tale of love, passion, violence and death. Next we meet the courtly characters, Prince Escalus and his kinsmen, followed by the holy church in the guise of Friar Lawrence. This article contains spoilers! We also have related articles on the themes of Romeo and Juliet , as well as a useful scene-by-scene summary. Studying Romeo and Juliet?
Сделайте это, - приказал. - И тут же доложите. ГЛАВА 34 Сьюзан сидела одна в помещении Третьего узла, ожидая возвращения Следопыта. Хейл решил выйти подышать воздухом, за что она была ему безмерно благодарна. Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения.
Хотя Сьюзан практически не покидала шифровалку в последние три года, она не переставала восхищаться этим сооружением. Главное помещение представляло собой громадную округлую камеру высотой в пять этажей. Ее прозрачный куполообразный потолок в центральной части поднимался на 120 футов. Купол из плексигласа имел ячеистую структуру - защитную паутину, способную выдержать взрыв силой в две мегатонны. Солнечные лучи, проходя сквозь этот экран, покрывали стены нежным кружевным узором.