Norm Referenced And Criterion Referenced Tests Pdf

norm referenced and criterion referenced tests pdf

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Norm-referenced refers to standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another. Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam. Test developers use a variety of statistical methods to select norming groups, interpret raw scores, and determine performance levels.

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Due to the recent and unprecedented emphasis on educational accountability, assessment selection has become an important consideration. There are various types of assessments that can be used to measure student performance. Additionally, scores are reported in different formats, interpreted differently and target different content. Tests based on norms measure the performance of a group of test takers against the performance of another group of test takers. This type of assessment result can used to compare the performance of seventh graders in a particular school system to the performance of a broader, and perhaps more diverse nationally or state-wide , group of seventh graders.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Language teaching and testing are inseparable and complementary to one another. Beginning from intuitive via scientific testing, today we are in communicative era of testing. Recently, we have plethora of language testing approaches and one of them is norm-referenced versus criterion-referenced testing.

Two alternative approaches to educational testing that must be thoroughly understood are norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing. Although there are similarities between these two approaches to testing, there are also fundamental differences between norm and criterion referenced testing. There have been disputations about the relative virtues of norm and criterion-referenced measurements for a long time. However, a fundamental fact is recognised by most of concerned people that norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing are complementary approaches. When the evaluation is concerned with the performance of the individual in terms of what he can do or the behaviour he can demonstrate, is termed as criterion- referenced evaluation. In this evaluation there is a reference to a criterion. But there is no reference to the performance of other individuals in the group.


Criterion-referenced tests are designed to assess whether an individual has a particular set of competencies or skills. Criterion-referenced measures may also be used to determine whether the individual meets the requirements for entry in special educational provision or for other decision processes. Psychiatric or other diagnoses are forms of criterion-referenced testing, the presence or absence of signs and symptoms of ASD constituting the criteria. Criterion-referenced items can function as norm-referenced measures. For instance, developmental tests will have population norms on sentence length. Hence, a 5-year-old who has not yet achieved four-word sentences may be seen as being severely behind in their expressive speech compared with other 5-year-olds, whereas a 2-year-old with such skills would be seen as within the typical range of development for their age. Used in this way, they should be subject to the same quality standards noted for norm-referenced measures.

curriculum and instruction have become test driven. In this article, we will examine the differ- ences between norm-referenced tests (NRT) and criterion-ref-​.

Norm-referenced test

Download this information in PDF format. A primary goal of testing is to collect information to use in making decisions. Depending on the kinds of decisions that need to be made, different types of information may be needed. This difference in the type of decision to be made forms the basis for two major types of tests - criterion-referenced tests CRTs and norm-referenced tests NRTs. In criterion-referenced testing, the goal is usually to make a decision about whether or not an examinee can demonstrate mastery in an area of content and competencies.

Patricia C. Montgomery, Barbara H. The purposes of this article are 1 to compare the similarities and differences between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests and 2 to summarize how each should be used in the assessment of developmental performance in children.

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Criterion-Referenced Testing

A norm-referenced test NRT is a type of test , assessment , or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured. Assigning scores on such tests may be described as relative grading , marking on a curve BE or grading on a curve AE , CE also referred to as curved grading , bell curving , or using grading curves. It is a method of assigning grades to the students in a class in such a way as to obtain or approach a pre-specified distribution of these grades having a specific mean and derivation properties, such as a normal distribution also called Gaussian distribution. The estimate is derived from the analysis of test scores and possibly other relevant data from a sample drawn from the population.

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Criterion-referenced assessment. Norm-referenced assessment. Measures a student's performance based on mastery of a specific set of skills. It measures.

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Test in EFL Classroom

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Он убил Дэвида. Бринкерхофф положил руку ей на плечо.

Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью. Ее секрет был спрятан в керамических шахтах, уходивших на шесть этажей вниз; ее похожий на ракету корпус окружал лабиринт подвесных лесов и кабелей, из-под которых слышалось шипение фреоновой системы охлаждения. Генераторы внизу производили постоянный низкочастотный гул, что делало акустику в шифровалке какой-то загробной, присущей миру призраков. ТРАНСТЕКСТ, подобно всем великим технологическим достижениям, появился на свет в силу необходимости.


Marq L.


Norm-referenced tests (NRT) help compare the performance of one student with the performances of a large group of students, while criterion-referenced tests.

Amedee G.


Although no testing is flawless and some degree of subjectivity is inevitable norm​-referenced and criterion-referenced tests give us different.