File Name: effective interviewing and interrogation techniques .zip
The Reid technique is a method of interrogation.
She and her team ran into the kitchen, weapons up. The cooks and their helpers stood like statues. I knew before I picked up that it was Martin Gittens. For a time, there was silence on the line. We have to work together now, you and me.
The executive engaged in the normal conduct of business devotes much of his time to interviewing. However, there is an appalling lack of effort given to systematic attempts at building improvements into this age-old process.
Interviewing remains one of those activities which we think we know all about merely because we have been doing it […]. Interviewing remains one of those activities which we think we know all about merely because we have been doing it so long; we have been lulled by habit. It seems apparent that a modest effort aimed at an analysis of our interviewing techniques would yield generous returns.
In the broad sense, interviewing is the process whereby individuals usually two exchange information.
The individuals may be concerned with a job opening, a promotion, a special assignment, a product sale, information for intelligence purposes, a proposed merger, or other questions.
The information exchanged need not be limited to facts. In business, particularly, such products of an interview as meaning and understanding are oftentimes more significant than objective factual statements. Interviewing in the contemporary business setting invariably takes place in an atmosphere filled with a sense of urgency. The time allocated to the interview is necessarily limited. Consequently, a nondirective approach finds little application; it is necessary to use the guided interview in the vast majority of situations.
This inherent time constraint sometimes brings about dysfunctional consequences: the interviewer is so preoccupied with budgeting his time that the content and the purpose of the interview are vitiated. Hence, we must define what we mean by an effective interview.
For the purposes of this article, an effective interview is one that optimizes the perceived communication objectives of the individuals involved, with time as the principal constraint. We shall focus on research findings concerning:. The lack of adequate planning for an interview is the greatest single fault found in my studies of the interviewing process. A moderate amount of preplanning can easily obviate such unfortunate occurrences. When the objective of the interview is well-known in advance, it is usually a good practice to allow the individual concerned ample time to prepare for the talk before the actual involvement.
By indicating, ahead of time and in writing, the points to be covered, the interviewer gives the interviewee an added advantage and reinforces the specific purpose of the session. Too often the expectations of the interviewee may be far different from those of the interviewer. This misunderstanding, if not corrected, can be disastrous. On the other hand, too much preplanning and detailing for an interview can be equally harmful.
The interviewee may then develop conventionally correct answers or platitudes which, of course, reduce the informational content of the interview to virtually zero. A written outline of important points to be covered is not necessarily an indication of rigidity; rather, it reflects consideration for all parties concerned. When explained, it generates a feeling of confidence as well as fairness—particularly if two or more people are to be ranked in an evaluation. The outline may even include typical questions in order to solicit comparable responses.
Again, however, a warning against excess is needed: too much reliance on a programed questioning approach is often disconcerting to the interviewee and may lead to stereotyped answers. Ideally, of course, each question should be designed for the situation and the respondent. In presenting information, a speaker allocates blocks of time to various items on his agenda. If no time limit is established, the presentation can continue indefinitely.
Even worse, the truly important information may never be told. This process takes place by dint of the normal human trait of retaining the most significant bits of information for the end. Psychiatrists recognize this and are particularly attentive in the last ten minutes of the therapy session.
Borrowing from this insight, the interviewer, although not able to set an hourly cycle as does the psychiatrist, should try discreetly to indicate a time scale. This allows the interviewee to plan and to include relevant information which otherwise might be withheld. If the interview is terminated too abruptly, the probability of losing valuable information is very high.
A time limit can be suggested by citing the next appointment or by noting, perhaps, a previously scheduled conference. Sometimes it may be in the best interest of both parties to set another date for an extended session or to plan on completing only one or two stages of progress at a time.
Certainly the general tone of the interview should be one of helpfulness and friendliness so as to minimize the immediate barriers to forthright communication. In this connection it should be mentioned that privacy is a first prerequisite to good interviewing. An important component of this is freedom from distracting interruptions. The telephone many times is such a distraction. In order to establish the critically important element of rapport with the interviewee, a genuine attempt should be made to put the interviewee at ease—especially in job application, promotion, or other interviews where significant differences in status exist.
Normally, at the beginning of an interview an allowance should be made for the interviewee to adjust to the interview environment. The situation is new for the interviewee; it may be his or her first experience of this kind. Unless there is a specified adaptation period, the interviewee may be unable to reduce his or her level of anxiety, with the resulting loss of the entire session. Part of this adaptive process is familiarization with the surroundings.
It is an often overlooked truism that whenever an individual is placed in a strange situation, he becomes apprehensive. Overcoming this fear is often a most difficult procedure. By explaining, for example, the need for commonplace objects such as pencil and note paper that are anxiety-provoking, the level of tension may be reduced.
Also, it is well to remember that the manner and simple courtesies extended by the interviewer are greatly magnified in the eyes of the interviewee. Thus, a limited amount of pleasantries may be condoned if they fulfill this useful purpose.
By jotting down significant bits of information, the interviewer can readily reconstruct what actually took place. The record assists with details which would be hard to remember if not recorded. The time that would be needed to fix them in mind without benefit of notes can be used to greater advantage listening and thinking.
Then, too, writing down items compliments the interviewee; it means that his responses are considered important enough to be recorded. It is a convenient reinforcing mechanism; it may even be used to guide the path of the interview.
Information of a picayune variety should naturally be avoided. Similarly, allowing the interviewee to relate too much information can be dangerous. Any inadvertently revealed facts or incidents may bring about severe anxiety feelings when he or she reflects on them later.
Temptations to divulge information too freely should be sidestepped as lightly as possible so that continued rapport may be maintained. In addition, circumspection should be exercised at all times lest the interviewer become too emotionally involved in the exchange. Disagreements tend to provoke planning for verbal counterattacks with the result that the informational content is lost.
The interviewee is overly sensitive to all reactions by the interviewer. Taking advantage of this, the interviewer may easily steer the conversation along the most productive channels.
Small inflections in the voice give encouragement. By repeating phrases already expressed, one finds the respondent expanding with details on a relevant issue. Sometimes, merely restating the reply allows a time for reflection and quite natural expansion or clarification of a point perhaps lost in the first verbalization.
Support given by nodding is most effective. Other nonverbal means of rendering assistance are equally significant. Because such utterances provide no direct interpretation, they are received as the interviewee wants to receive them.
He then emphasizes or magnifies the point as he sees fit. A succinct summary of information from time to time not only allows for clarity in the communication process but also gives the informant a mirror of just what has occurred.
Alterations can be made easily by the interviewee once he hears what he has said. In the final stage, a precise statement of what was agreed on or of the general conclusions reached often allows for a reduction of confusion.
When details or figures have been discussed, the summary can often be in the form of a written memorandum. If the interviewer wants to be sure of what the interviewee communicated or to check on whether the interviewee really understood the data discussed, he can ask him to write the memorandum. The tools of the interviewer are his questions. They should be used with dispatch and yet with the utmost care. Sarcasm or obscure humor should be avoided unless the interviewer is positive that the interviewee perceives them as such.
Through the judicious use of questions, the skilled interviewer not only obtains information but also guides the talk along productive lines. Leading questions or questions designed with built-in responses are usually not very effective. Similarly, the double negative type of interrogation is to be shunned as it tends to evoke anxiety.
To avoid slipping into such traps, even the best interviewer should review his questioning techniques from time to time. Thus, self-analyzing by tape recording or by having a third person observe an interview for diagnostic purposes can prevent poor techniques from developing into set procedures.
This process may be extended to the use of video tape recordings with proportionately more significant results. In a research project that concentrated on questioning techniques, I analyzed the recordings of about interviews held for the purpose of selecting job applicants, appraising executive performance, or counseling employees in their careers.
One of the conclusions from this study is this: successful interviewers as evaluated by information obtained utilize at the outset of the interview a pattern of broad, general questions. Apparently this allows the respondent to answer with information which he feels is important, as well as providing him the opportunity to expand into areas that he deems to be of vital concern.
Once this information is released, the interviewer can sharpen the focus with specific questions eliciting short answers.
It seems that silence in our society is to be avoided at virtually all times and all places. Unfortunately, this feeling affects the interview. Usually fear of silence is felt most by the inexperienced interviewer. All too often he tends to put forth another question while the respondent is meekly attempting to formulate his own thoughts into a logical reply—all just to keep the air filled with words.
The tendency to hurry questions and answers is compounded by the distorted sense of time that people get during an interview. To understand the amount of distortion, one research group carried out such simple tests as stopping a conversation for a short period. Consequently, the interviewer in particular should be cautious of pushing forward too quickly.
Not only may the words fall far short of the desired goal, but also they may convey misunderstandings.
Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques
By: James Orlando, Associate Attorney. This report provides a concise overview of 1 the Reid method of interrogation, 2 critiques of the Reid method, and 3 alternative interrogation techniques. The Reid method is a system of interviewing and interrogation widely used by police departments in the United States. Reid and Associates, Inc. According to the company ' s website, over , law enforcement and security professionals have attended the company ' s interview and interrogation training programs since they were first offered in
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Effective interviewing and interrogation techniques / Nathan J. Gordon, William L. Fleisher. 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.
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Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques believably answers the question, How do you know when someone is lying? It also provides a guide for interviewing probable suspects and interrogating likely perpetrators on techniques and tradecraft. This book covers topics about searching for truth and revealing lies.
Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques believably answers the question, How do you know when someone is lying? It also provides a guide for interviewing probable suspects and interrogating likely perpetrators on techniques and tradecraft. This book covers topics about searching for truth and revealing lies. It presents forensic assessments based on psychophysiology, and assessments on the basis of non-verbal behavior.
The executive engaged in the normal conduct of business devotes much of his time to interviewing. However, there is an appalling lack of effort given to systematic attempts at building improvements into this age-old process. Interviewing remains one of those activities which we think we know all about merely because we have been doing it […]. Interviewing remains one of those activities which we think we know all about merely because we have been doing it so long; we have been lulled by habit. It seems apparent that a modest effort aimed at an analysis of our interviewing techniques would yield generous returns.
Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques, Second Edition, is completely revised and updated so as to cover all the information a student needs to know to obtain answers from a witness, a victim, or a suspect and how to interpret these answers with the utmost accuracy. The book concludes with an insightful look at the future of truth verification. Participants in the authors' training courses around the world.
Осмотрели карманы, одежду, бумажники. Ничего похожего. У Халохота был компьютер Монокль, мы и его проверили.
Не существует алгоритма, не поддающегося взлому. - Нет, существует. Я видел его в Интернете. Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать.
Она встретила эти слова с явным неодобрением. - Я все проверяю дважды. - Ну… ты знаешь, как они говорят о компьютерах. Когда их машины выдают полную чушь, они все равно на них молятся. Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле.