Spatial And Attribute Data In Gis Pdf

spatial and attribute data in gis pdf

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Hence, this data is a combination of location data and a value data to render a map, for example. Attribute data can be classified into 4 levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The nominal level is the lowest level of measurement for distinguishing features quantitatively using type or class e.

Geographical Information Systems in Hydrology pp Cite as. The use of GIS technology in engineering, in general, and in hydrology, in particular, has become feasible due primarily to the possibility of handling and integrating enormous amounts of geographic data efficiently. As shown in Figure 4. Both maps and attribute data constitute abstractions or simplifications of the real world.

What is Spatial Data?

A geographic information system GIS is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications or GIS apps are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive queries user-created searches , store and edit spatial and non-spatial data, analyze spatial information output, and visually share the results of these operations by presenting them as maps. Geographic information science or, GIScience —the scientific study of geographic concepts, applications, and systems—is commonly initialized as GIS, as well. Geographic information systems are utilized in multiple technologies, processes, techniques and methods. GIS provides the capability to relate previously unrelated information, through the use of location as the "key index variable". Locations and extents that are found in the Earth's spacetime , are able to be recorded through the date and time of occurrence, along with x, y, and z coordinates ; representing, longitude x , latitude y , and elevation z.

How to Perform Spatial Analysis

There are two components to GIS data: spatial information coordinate and projection information for spatial features and attribute data. Attribute data is information appended in tabular format to spatial features. The spatial data is the where and attribute data can contain information about the what, where, and why. Attribute data provides characteristics about spatial data. Attribute data can be store as one of five different field types in a table or database: character, integer, floating, date, and BLOB. The character property or string is for text based values such as the name of a street or descriptive values such as the condition of a street.

No matter what your interests are or what field you work in, spatial data is always being considered whether you know it or not. Spatial data can exist in a variety of formats and contains more than just location specific information. To properly understand and learn more about spatial data, there are a few key terms that will help you become more fluent in the language of spatial data. Vector data is best described as graphical representations of the real world. There are three main types of vector data: points, lines, and polygons. Connecting points create lines, and connecting lines that create an enclosed area create polygons.

If every line on a map was the same colour, width, thickness, and had the same label, it would be very hard to make out what was going on. The map would also give us very little information. Maps come to life when colour and different symbols are used to help you to tell one type of feature from the next. Can you tell the difference between rivers, roads and contours using the map on the left? Using the map on the right it is much easier to see the different features.

Introduction to GIS and Spatial Data Two GIS data categories – “Vector” and “​raster” only if attribute is linked to map information – i.e. is “Georeferenced”.

Spatial Data Characteristics

ArcGIS Blog. Most data and measurements can be associated with locations and, therefore, can be placed on the map. Using spatial data, you know both what is present and where it is.

Взгляд его черных глаз стал тяжелым и неподвижным. Возвращение домой оказалось долгим и слишком утомительным. Последний месяц был для Лиланда Фонтейна временем больших ожиданий: в агентстве происходило нечто такое, что могло изменить ход истории, и, как это ни странно директор Фонтейн узнал об этом лишь случайно.

GIS Data: Spatial vs Attributes

 Не обращайте на него внимания, - засмеялась.  - Он просто расстроен. Но он получит то, что ему причитается.  - Она встряхнула волосами и подмигнула. - Может быть, все-таки скажете что-нибудь. Что помогло бы мне? - сказал Беккер.

Сказал Джабба.  - Вы же учились в колледжах. Ну, кто-нибудь. Разница между ураном и плутонием. Ответа не последовало.

Geographic information system




Geographic: it has a spatial component (location). – Information: it tells us something about that place (attribute). • This is one of they aspects of geographic data.

Lola W.


Within a GIS, data can be queried in two ways; attribute queries and spatial queries. For attribute query the features are selected using attribute.

Emelinda A.


Geographic Information System GIS is a computer-based tool or a technology to manage, analyze and display geographically referenced information.



One of the main objectives of the present study is to develop a digital database of glaciers and glacial lakes using geographic information systems (GIS).

Kathy N.


I. Introduction a. Spatial Data – geometry and positions of map features i. E.g. line layer representing county roads b. Attribute Data – characteristics of features.