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The majority of students with disabilities is now served in general education classrooms as we embrace inclusive practices in our schools. The primary dynamics of the general ed classroom is changing due to these inclusive measures.
- Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion
- Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion
- Contemporary Special Education
- A Picture of Special Educational Needs in England–An Overview
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Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion
In this paper I aim to explore and present various statistics regarding special educational needs in England, to get an overview regarding schooling of pupils with Special Educational Needs SEN as it is at the time of writing, as well as historic patterns. I use publically available datasets to present answers to the following questions: What proportion of all children in schools in England have been identified as having special educational needs?
How many children attend special schools? What proportion of children attend special schools? How have numbers of special schools changed? What are the proportions of children in different school types eligible for and receiving free school meals?
The use of publically available national data is used to explore patterns, reporting these data give an overview of the number, profile and characteristics of the population in schools with SEN.
They give indications on the progress of inclusion or lack thereof , and highlight issues of disproportionality. Findings include the number of pupils identified with SEN in England decreases while the population of pupils in all schools rises. There is also a rise in the number of children attending special schools. Disproportionality with regards to gender; socio-economic status and age are also revealed.
In this paper I aim to explore and present various statistics regarding special educational needs in England. These will include both trends patterns over time and snapshots what the situation was in The purpose of this is to get an overview of schooling of pupils with Special Educational Needs SEN as it is at the time of writing, as well as historic patterns.
It is important to have such an overview, in order to contextualize the English education system and view the implications of policy on practice with regards to SEN demonstrated through pupil numbers and studies of proportionality. Such an approach can demonstrate and highlight tensions between policy and practice, such as the policy stance for inclusive education but yet an increase of pupils attending special schools.
In this paper I present data on the number of children with SEN overall, and in special schools, viewing these through demographic variables such as gender and age. In England, the definition of if a person has special educational needs or not is enshrined in law. According to the Children and Families Act, :. A child or young person has special educational needs if he or she has a learning difficulty or disability which calls for special educational provision to be made for him or her.
A child of compulsory school age or a young person has a learning difficulty or disability if he or she—. A word about context—it is sometimes assumed that writing about education policy and practice in England is synonymous with writing about the same in the United Kingdom. This is not so. As Booth remarked in Booth , the legal basis of education differs considerably between Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England.
Responsibility for education has been devolved to a national parliament in Scotland, and national assemblies in Wales and Northern Ireland. One of the clearest examples of divergence in policy related to SEN has been in Scotland.
Another contextual point is that the government department responsible for educational policy in England has undergone a number of name changes and rebranding, some of which reflect the differences in role and responsibility. In the time since the Warnock report it has been known as:. As Black et al. These policy changes may have an effect on the number of pupils with SEN in schools, and thus an exploration of pupil numbers and trends is an important one.
To meet the aim of giving an overview of SEN in England and plotting trends over time in this article I present answers to the following questions:. A number of researchers have written similar articles since the publication of the Warnock report. One such article followed the publication of the Education Act that the Warnock report preceded. In the same period the total special school population aged 5—15 fell from , to ,, a drop of 4.
Thus, the total school population declined faster than the special school population, leading to an increase in the proportion of pupils in special schools from 1. Researchers Norwich, ; Rustemier and Vaughan, ; Black and Norwich, were commissioned by CSIE to explore school placement trends that is, the proportion of children placed in special schools or other separate settings.
The most recent trends analysis report on data from to is at the time of writing, to be launched in June My own journey in academia has also involved exploration of trends in government statistics relating to SEN. Both my Masters dissertation, then my doctoral thesis Black, explored the over-representation of secondary school aged pupils in special schools, with a view that these patterns were demonstrations of disproportionality and as indications that inclusion in mainstream secondary schools was not being achieved.
Within special schools in England certain groups are over-represented. The Department for Education Skills, noted that the population of special schools was boy-heavy, there was a larger than average number of pupils eligible for free school meals a proxy for socio-economic status in these schools, and that two-thirds of the pupils in special schools were of secondary age.
These authors began to address this, collating work that has been carried out in England on disproportionality in the special needs education system not necessarily within special schools.
They discussed ethnicity, poverty, month of birth, gender and age. Work by Strand and Lindsay , and Strand and Lindorff , while focusing on disproportionally according to ethnicity, do explore other variables, such as age, gender and socio-economic status.
There is a wealth of research into the disproportionality of ethnic minority students in the special schools system, at both a national and international level, with considerable effort put in to try to understand and address this problem Coutinho and Oswald, ; Artiles, , including identifying predictor variables for the patterns Oswald et al.
Lindsay et al. Strand and Lindsay used pupil level data to calculate the odds ratios of having identified SEN across a number of variables, including ethnicity, age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Other authors have used the affordances of England's National Pupil Database NPD to explore pupil level trends, and relationships with other variables of interest for example: Farrell et al.
The NPD contains administrative pupil-level data about all children of school age in England, comprised of cross-sectional files, each containing over 7 million records on individual children with anonymized identification numbers enrolled in English schools. Data in the NPD is classified into different tiers, depending on its sensitivity and rules on access vary in relation to different tiers of data.
Users apply to access the data, a Data Sharing Approval Panel meet to approve or reject the application. If approved, users can to construct longitudinal pupil-level files for each school cohort and carry out pupil level analysis Department for Education, Publically available national data aggregates of school and pupil level data also helps to explore patterns, reporting these data provides an overview of the number, profile and characteristics of the population in schools.
As described below the Department for Education DfE collects and collates data on pupils on a range of variables and measures from schools and local authorities.
It also has historic data from its predecessors. This article collates, analyses and describes patterns in the data of interest. In this article I use publically accessible government data, published in , to show trends and snapshots of factors related to SEN.
These are publically accessible data made available on-line by the UK government. I use two sources:. These two sources consist of Excel spreadsheets with a range of tabs leading to different collections of data aggregates.
For the relationship between source, tabs and research question see Table 1. The Department for Education DfE has legal powers to collect pupil, child and workforce data that schools and local authorities hold. This data is used by the DfE to: assess school performance; publish Statistical First Releases; evaluate and inform educational policy; and assess funding to local authorities and schools Department for Education, a. Schools, pupils and their characteristics is one such Statistical First Release, published annually and containing information on the number of schools and pupils in schools in England, using data from the January School Census.
Breakdowns are given for school types of which special schools are of particular interest as well as for pupil characteristics including free school meal eligibility, English as an additional language and ethnicity.
The data sets in some instances include data from previous years, hence why time series can be plotted. Graphs and descriptive summaries have been produced to create a descriptive picture of what the SEN landscape in England is like in the year I have chosen not to use an odds index like Dyson and Gallannaugh , nor prevalence rates as used by Swann , but rather present the raw data to answer the research questions. The project is based on the secondary analysis of publically accessible data.
The collectors and publishers of the data—the DfE, recognize that researchers may use the data Department for Education, a , but that it is aggregate data, with no personal identifiers. In some places I reproduce figures used by the DfE in their reporting of the statistics. Where these are reproduced they are cited appropriately.
In this section I set out the answers to the research questions, illustrated with figures where appropriate. In , over 1. The total number of children in all schools was just under 8. This equates to In this figure was It is interesting to note that this decrease occurs while the population of pupils in all schools rises, from 8,, in to 8,, in it might be expected that numbers of children with SEN might increase as the overall number of pupils attending schools does.
In it is closer to 1 in 7 children 1,, The proportion of children identified as having SEN has fallen, since , with a drop off around the time of the launch of the new Code of Practice Department for Education Department of Health, This follows a decline in each of the previous 6 years from Figure 2.
Time series showing the percentage of pupils with special educational needs. Source: Department for Education c. The number of children in special schools Figure 3 can be compared with the number of pupils in all schools over time Figure 4. In the number of children in special schools was just under , , Over time, the number of children in special schools dropped from 94, in to a low of 90, in , but has been rising since then, passing , between and The number of children in all schools fell from around 8.
In the years to pupil numbers in special schools rose despite the number of pupils in all schools falling. Moving from actual numbers, to proportions of children in special schools out of pupils in all schools thus accounting for such changes in population , the proportion of children in special schools has been rising from 1. This is against a backdrop of a reduction in number of special schools.
In there were 1, special schools. This dropped to a low of 1, special schools in , a figure which has risen slightly to 1, in There has been a drop of 10 percentage points in numbers of special schools in the period from to Figure 5.
Percentage proportion of children in special schools out of all pupils. Figure 6 shows that in a third of pupils with SEN aged 5—15 were girls, the majority two thirds were boys. When the , of full and part-time pupils attending state-funded and non-maintained special schools in school year groups Reception to Year 14 are plotted Figure 8 , several interesting patterns emerge:. In England pupils have to stay in education until age 18, but this is not limited to staying at school.
Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion
PDF | On Jan 4, , Joshua B. Gardiner published Special Educational Needs and Key Words: Disability, Inclusion, Medical Model of Disability, Social Model of administrative areas, to provide mainstream education or other appropriate.
Contemporary Special Education
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Hodkinson Published Psychology. Understanding and engaging critically with the field of special educational needs and disability SEND is a difficult task.
I am the mother of a child that has been in a fully inclusive classroom since preschool. Explore some of the common challenges that teachers face with special-needs-inclusive classrooms, from insufficient training to a shortage of teacher aides.
A Picture of Special Educational Needs in England–An Overview
Global Learning in the 21st Century pp Cite as. Current understandings and issues relating to the learning and teaching of children with special needs are considered in this chapter. There is much happening in schools, in nations and regions around the world, with respect to special education. However, the extent and scope of this change varies a great deal. Special education, learning and teaching of children in inclusive schools, specialist schools and mainstream school settings is being embraced by many, yet others are struggling or are not addressing the needs of all children and young people.
In this paper I aim to explore and present various statistics regarding special educational needs in England, to get an overview regarding schooling of pupils with Special Educational Needs SEN as it is at the time of writing, as well as historic patterns. I use publically available datasets to present answers to the following questions: What proportion of all children in schools in England have been identified as having special educational needs? How many children attend special schools? What proportion of children attend special schools? How have numbers of special schools changed? What are the proportions of children in different school types eligible for and receiving free school meals? The use of publically available national data is used to explore patterns, reporting these data give an overview of the number, profile and characteristics of the population in schools with SEN.
Start reading Key Issues in Special Educational Needs, Disability and Inclusion for free online and get access to an unlimited library of academic and non-fiction.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Hodkinson Published Psychology.
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