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Who is considered the father of psychology? This question does not necessarily have a cut-and-dry answer since many individuals have contributed to the inception, rise, and evolution of modern-day psychology.
Psychophysics , study of quantitative relations between psychological events and physical events or, more specifically, between sensations and the stimuli that produce them. Physical science permits, at least for some of the senses , accurate measurement on a physical scale of the magnitude of a stimulus. By determining the stimulus magnitude that is just sufficient to produce a sensation or a response , it is possible to specify the minimum perceptible stimulus, or the absolute stimulus threshold stimulus limen , for the various senses.
The central inquiry of psychophysics pertains to the search for a lawful, quantitative relation between stimulus and sensation for the range of stimuli between these limits. Psychophysics was established by German scientist and philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner. He coined the word, developed the fundamental methods, conducted elaborate psychophysical experiments, and began a line of investigation that still persists in experimental psychology.
Trained in physics , Fechner in his later life became interested in metaphysics and searched for a way of relating the spiritual to the physical world. He hit upon the notion of measuring sensation in relation to its stimulus. German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber had discovered that the amount of change in magnitude of a given stimulus necessary to produce a just-noticeable change in sensation always bore an approximately constant ratio to the total stimulus magnitude.
It expresses the simple relation that the magnitude of a stimulus must be increased geometrically if the magnitude of sensation is to increase arithmetically. For physiologists and for many philosophers, this allowed the measurement of sensation in relation to a measured stimulus and thereby created the possibility of a scientific quantitative psychology.
More recently, psychophysicists have suggested that psychic magnitudes be assessed by direct scaling experiments rather than by deriving a sensation scale based on discrimination judgments. Psychophysical methods are used today in studies of sensation and in practical areas such as product comparisons and evaluations e. Psychophysics Article Additional Info.
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Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Psychophysics embraces the study of the subjective aspects of sensation in terms of objective stimulus energies.
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We are all fascinated by physiognomy, intrigued by the appearance of the people we admire. These perceptual portraits of more than thinkers who have fashioned our understanding of mind and behavior provide an alternative view of the history of psychology that is both pleasing and puzzling. The portraits and motifs have been manipulated in a variety of ways, using graphic and photographic procedures. They are arranged in order of birth date in a format of one page of descriptive text facing a full-page perceptual portrait. The text presents a brief synopsis of the person portrayed, that person's ideas, and the source of both the portrait and the motif. Interrelations between people are stressed, bringing to light common threads that run through the work of particular groups and adding yet another level to this unique gallery of psychology's pioneers. Skip to main content.
Fechner () For and In Psychology: Part I. William R. Woodward of which were lacking in Freud ac- knowledged that “G. T. Fechner held a view on the subject of Frankfurt: Peter Lang. [Gustav Theodor Fechner: A Ger-.
Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887)
Sigmund Freud — founder of psychoanalysis. In psychoanalysis, the precept according to which psychological processes and actions are governed by the gratification of needs and the avoidance or discharge of unpleasurable tension. It is the governing principle of the id, in contrast to the reality principle, which is a governing principle of the ego.
An early pioneer in experimental psychology and founder of psychophysics , he inspired many 20th-century scientists and philosophers.
Звонивший некоторое время молчал. - О… понимаю. Прошу прощения. Кто-то записал его, и я подумал, что это гостиница. Я здесь проездом, из Бургоса. Прошу прощения за беспокойство, доброй вам но… - Espere.
К счастью для японской экономики, у американцев оказался ненасытный аппетит к электронным новинкам. - Провайдер находится в районе территориального кода двести два. Однако номер пока не удалось узнать. - Двести два. Где это? - Где же на необъятных американских просторах прячется эта загадочная Северная Дакота.
Росио подошла еще ближе и изучающе смотрела на. - Хорошо, - вздохнул он, всем своим видом признавая поражение. Его испанский тут же потерял нарочитый акцент.
ГЛАВА 99 Фонтейн время от времени стучал кулаком по ладони другой руки, мерил шагами комнату для заседаний, то и дело посматривая на вращающиеся огни шифровалки. - Отключить. Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке.