Soil And Land Pollution Pdf

soil and land pollution pdf

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Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination. Environment pollution is a burning topic of the day.

With the rise of concrete buildings and roads, one part of the Earth that we rarely see is the soil. It has many different names, such as dirt, mud, and ground. However, it is definitely very important to us. The plants that feed us grow in soil, and keeping it healthy is essential to maintaining a beautiful planet.


With the rise of concrete buildings and roads, one part of the Earth that we rarely see is the soil. It has many different names, such as dirt, mud, and ground. However, it is definitely very important to us. The plants that feed us grow in soil, and keeping it healthy is essential to maintaining a beautiful planet.

However, like all other forms of nature, soil also suffers from pollution. The pollution of soil is a common thing these days, and it happens due to the presence of man-made elements. According to Environmental Pollution Centers, soil pollution is,. In the case of contaminants which occur naturally in soil , even when their levels are not high enough to pose a risk, soil pollution is still said to occur if the levels of the contaminants in soil exceed the levels that should naturally be present.

The main reason why the soil becomes contaminated is due to the presence of man-made waste. The waste produced from nature itself, such as dead plants, carcasses of animals and rotten fruits and vegetables only adds to the fertility of the soil.

However, our waste products are full of chemicals that are not originally found in nature and lead to soil pollution. Soil pollution is a complex phenomenon, and it can be triggered by a variety of things and activities, from the littering of cigarette butts to excess use of chemical fertilizers. Every cause is linked with another. Pinpointing at one particular cause is quite difficult. However, the leading causes are listed below.

Industrial activity has been the biggest contributor to the problem in the last century, especially since the amount of mining and manufacturing has increased. Most industries are dependent on extracting minerals from the Earth. Whether it is iron ore or coal, the by-products are contaminated, and they are not disposed of in a manner that cannot be considered safe.

As a result, the industrial waste lingers in the soil surface for a long time and makes it unsuitable for use. The utilization of chemicals has gone up tremendously since technology provided us with modern pesticides and fertilizers. They are full of chemicals that are not produced in nature and cannot be broken down by it. As a result, they seep into the ground after they mix with water and slowly reduce the fertility of the soil.

Other chemicals damage the composition of the soil and make it easier to erode by water and air. Plants absorb many of these pesticides, and when they decompose, they cause soil pollution since they become a part of the land. Finally, a growing cause for concern is how we dispose of our waste. While industrial waste is sure to cause contamination, there is another way in which we are adding to the pollution. Every human produces a certain amount of personal waste products by way of urine and feces.

While much of it moves into the sewer system, there is also a large amount that is dumped directly into landfills in the form of diapers. Even the sewer system ends at the landfill , where the biological waste pollutes the soil and water. This is because our bodies are full of toxins and chemicals which are now seeping into the land and causing pollution of soil. Oil leaks can happen during the storage and transport of chemicals.

This can be seen at most of the fuel stations. The chemicals present in the fuel deteriorates the quality of soil and make them unsuitable for cultivation.

These chemicals can enter into the groundwater through the soil and make the water undrinkable. Acid rain is caused when pollutants present in the air mix up with the rain and fall back on the ground.

The polluted water could dissolve away some of the essential nutrients found in soil and change the structure of the soil. Soil influences almost all aspects of our daily lives. Sometimes we fail to understand it. As a result of this, we sometimes fail to understand the effect that soil pollution has on our daily lives.

Polluted soil means stunted crops or even toxic underground water table. Some major effects of soil pollution are listed below. Considering how soil is the reason we are able to sustain ourselves, the contamination of it has major consequences on our health.

Crops and plants that are grown on polluted soil absorb much of the pollution and then pass these on to us. This could explain the sudden surge in small and terminal illnesses. Long term exposure to such soil can affect the genetic make-up of the body, causing congenital illnesses and chronic health problems that cannot be cured easily. In fact, it can sicken the livestock to a considerable extent and cause food poisoning over a long period of time.

The soil pollution can even lead to widespread famines if the plants are unable to grow in it. The ecological balance of any system gets affected due to the widespread contamination of the soil. Most plants are unable to adapt when the chemistry of the soil changes so radically in a short period of time.

Fungi and bacteria found in the soil that bind it together begin to decline, which creates an additional problem of soil erosion. The fertility of the soil slowly diminishes, making land unsuitable for agriculture and any local vegetation to survive.

The soil pollution causes large tracts of land to become hazardous to health. Unlike deserts, which are suitable for its native vegetation, such land cannot support most forms of life. The toxic chemicals present in the soil can decrease soil fertility and therefore decrease in the soil yield. The contaminated soil is then used to produce fruits and vegetables, which lacks quality nutrients and may contain some poisonous substance to cause serious health problems in people consuming them.

The emission of toxic and foul gases from landfills pollutes the environment and causes serious effects on the health of some people. Besides, the unpleasant smell causes inconvenience to other people. The death of many soil organisms e. Apart from that, it could also force other predators to move to other places in search of food. A number of ways have been suggested to curb the current rate of pollution. Such attempts at cleaning up the environment require plenty of time and resources to be pitched in.

Industries have been given regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste , which aims at minimizing the area that becomes polluted. Organic methods of farming are being supported, which do not use chemical-laden pesticides and fertilizers. The use of plants that can remove the pollutants from the soil is being encouraged. However, the road ahead is quite long, and the prevention of soil pollution will take many more years.

Soil pollution also leads to the poisoning of the underground water table. Since this water is stored beneath the layers of the soil, the toxins in the soil could easily percolate slowly and steadily into the water table. We must also remember that this is the water that is available for consumption and usage through wells and tube wells. When such toxic water is consumed or used over a period of time, it causes a lot of ill effects on our health.

Diseases like arsenic poisoning, food poisoning and others are caused due to the prolonged consumption of this toxic underground water. These diseases could also prove to be quite fatal.

Soil pollution is a complex problem that ought to be solved. It is essential that we all realize how important soil is for us. The earlier we realize, the better we will be able to solve the problem of soil pollution. It is a complex problem, and thus, it requires everyone, from an individual to the government, to work in complete unison. Listed below are a few things that could help in reducing soil pollution. Chemical fertilizers do more harm than good.

While proper amounts could enhance the fertility of the soil, excess of it actually poisons the soil. The excess of chemical fertilizers could pollute the soil in several ways. It could mess with the pH levels of the soil. It could also destroy the good microorganisms in the soil. Not only that, but the runoffs from such soils also cause water pollution as well. Thus using chemical fertilizers is like a double-edged sword. One of the major causes of soil pollution is soil erosion that is caused due to deforestation.

It is natural that with the ever-growing population, the humankind needs more and more space to expand their civilization. Often it is achieved at the cost of the health of the soil. To prevent this from happening, reforestation of a deforested area should be promoted. Also, afforestation should be promoted in the barren lands. The roots of the plants bind the soil particles together and even capture good microorganisms in the soil.

It also ensures the maintenance of the underground water table. These steps not only reduce waste generation but also ensure that soil pollution is reduced.

At present, plastic forms a significant portion of the generated wastes. More often than not, these wastes are buried in landfills. In these landfills, these plastics and other materials decompose slowly and release toxic materials into the soil.

These toxic substances are very harmful to the health of the soil and are a major source of soil pollution. By reusing and recycling things, we would ensure that lesser wastes are dumped in these landfills, and this, in turn, would reduce soil pollution. In order to ensure that a problem like soil pollution is solved, it is essential that every individual must get involved.

It is with their involvement that things can work out better. Awareness programs could be designed so that people understand soil pollution better.

Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment and Remediation

Soil pollution has many sources, from agriculture to industry to human activity. Polluted soils affect harm life and, in turn, wildlife. Depending upon the polluting agent, pollutants can persist in the environment. Solutions, therefore, involve not just removing a source of pollution but also cleaning up and restoring the polluted area. Adding to the complexity of soil pollution is nonpoint source pollution NSP , which enters the environment through runoff. Take any action at your disposal to reduce soil pollution, as you may not always find a clearly defined source. Sulfur dioxide emissions can cause acid rain and forest destruction.

The land within the boundaries of the United States—covering nearly 2. The use of land, what is applied to or released on it, and its condition change constantly: there are changes in the types and amounts of resources that are extracted, the distribution and nature of land cover types, the amounts and types of chemicals used and wastes managed, and perceptions of the land's value. While human activities on land including food and fiber production, land development, manufacturing, and resource extraction provide multiple economic, social, and environmental benefits to communities, they can also involve the creation, use, or release of chemicals and pollutants that can affect the environment and human health. EPA works with other federal agencies, states, and partners to protect land resources, ecosystems, environmental processes, and uses of land through regulation of chemicals, waste, and pollutants, and through cleanup and restoration of contaminated lands. The complex responsibilities of land management underscore the challenges of collecting data and assessing trends on the state of land.

While exposure to soil pollutants is generally less problematic than exposure to air and water pollution, it might still have serious effects on children who usually play on the soil. Being in closer proximity to potential pollution, children could accidentally swallow soil particles while playing on the ground. Soil pollutants, including chemicals and pathogens, have interchangeable liquid, solid or gaseous forms that mix until an equilibrium is reached between the three. The solid forms are absorbed or mixed with soil particles, liquids fill the voids made of pores between soil particles, and the gaseous forms surround the air between soil particles. This means that we can be exposed to gaseous, liquid and solid forms of soil pollution separately or together at the same time. Soil pollution may enter our bodies directly - through the inhalation of soil dust or soil particles, or through skin contact, or indirectly - through the consumption of food, especially vegetables grown in contaminated soil, or by inhaling the toxic vapors of volatile chemicals polluting the soil.


Find out its causes and effects, but most importantly the solutions to control and prevent land pollution, and how you can contribute to reduce it. Land pollution is a heavy topic. With its direct impact on the environment and consequently on the health of humans, animals, and plants, soil pollution is a real problem that involves both political powers and citizens. Soil is not a renewable resource. Its degradation can be rapid a few years or decades while it takes several thousands of years to form and regenerate.

This includes chemical, physical and biological processes affecting flora, fauna, water, air and soil in relation to environmental pollution. Because of its scope, the subject areas are diverse and include all aspects of pollution sources, transport, deposition, accumulation, acid precipitation, atmospheric pollution, metals, aquatic pollution including marine pollution and ground water, waste water, pesticides, soil pollution, sewage, sediment pollution, forestry pollution, effects of pollutants on humans, vegetation, fish, aquatic species, micro-organisms, and animals, environmental and molecular toxicology applied to pollution research, biosensors, global and climate change, ecological implications of pollution and pollution models. Articles should not be submitted that are of local interest only and do not advance international knowledge in environmental pollution and solutions to pollution. Articles that simply replicate known knowledge or techniques while researching a local pollution problem will normally be rejected without review. Submitted articles must have up-to-date references, employ the correct experimental replication and statistical analysis, where needed and contain a significant contribution to new knowledge.

We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet! Soil pollution is mostly caused by chemical substances produced by human activity. The soil is the skin of the earth, a mantle full of scars, thousand-year-old wrinkles and more recent injuries caused both by man and nature itself.

What is Soil Pollution?


Soil Pollution Diseases

Окинув быстрым взглядом находящееся за стеклом помещение шифровалки, Сьюзан включила кнопку яркости. Вспыхнувший экран был совершенно пуст. Несколько этим озадаченная, она вызвала команду поиска и напечатала: НАЙТИ: СЛЕДОПЫТ Это был дальний прицел, но если в компьютере Хейла найдутся следы ее программы, то они будут обнаружены. Тогда станет понятно, почему он вручную отключил Следопыта. Через несколько секунд на экране показалась надпись: ОБЪЕКТ НЕ НАЙДЕН Не зная, что искать дальше, она ненадолго задумалась и решила зайти с другой стороны.

Если мы - охранники общества, то кто будет следить за нами, чтобы мы не стали угрозой обществу. Сьюзан покачала головой, не зная, что на это возразить. Хейл улыбнулся: - Так заканчивал Танкадо все свои письма ко. Это было его любимое изречение. ГЛАВА 32 Дэвид Беккер остановился в коридоре у номера 301. Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо. Вопрос национальной безопасности.

 Что. - Забавно, - сказала.  - Последний файл из намеченных на вчера был загружен в одиннадцать сорок. - И. - Итак, ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрывает один шифр в среднем за шесть минут. Последний файл обычно попадает в машину около полуночи. И не похоже, что… - Что? - Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул.

Soil is fundamental to human life on Earth. Most plants require a soil substrate to provide water and nutrients, and whether we farm the plants.

И он согласился поехать. - Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф.

За мгновение до того, как они сомкнулись, Сьюзан, потеряв равновесие, упала на пол за дверью. Коммандер, пытаясь приоткрыть дверь, прижал лицо вплотную к узенькой щелке. - Господи Боже мой, Сьюзан, с тобой все в порядке. Она встала на ноги и расправила платье.

Soil contamination

Он попытался оторвать голову от пола.

Теперь он уже бежал по узкому проходу. Шаги все приближались. Беккер оказался на прямом отрезке, когда вдруг улочка начала подниматься вверх, становясь все круче и круче. Он почувствовал боль в ногах и сбавил скорость.

ГЛАВА 83 Беккеровская веспа, без сомнения, была самым миниатюрным транспортным средством, когда-либо передвигавшимся по шоссе, ведущему в севильский аэропорт. Наибольшая скорость, которую она развивала, достигала 50 миль в час, причем делала это со страшным воем, напоминая скорее циркулярную пилу, а не мотоцикл, и, увы, ей не хватало слишком много лошадиных сил, чтобы взмыть в воздух. В боковое зеркало заднего вида он увидел, как такси выехало на темное шоссе в сотне метров позади него и сразу же стало сокращать дистанцию. Беккер смотрел прямо перед. Вдалеке, метрах в пятистах, на фоне ночного неба возникли силуэты самолетных ангаров.

Беккер на своем мотоцикле скрылся в узком проходе Каллита-де-ля-Вирген. ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки. Переключая передачи, Беккер мчался вперед между белокаменными стенами. Улочка имела множество поворотов и тупиков, и он быстро потерял направление. Он поднял вверх голову, надеясь увидеть Гиральду, но окружившие его со всех сторон стены были так высоки, что ему не удалось увидеть ничего, кроме тоненькой полоски начинающего светлеть неба.

 Электроснабжение уже наверняка восстановили.  - Он открыл жалюзи. - Все еще темно? - спросила Мидж. Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи.


Mason C.


“Soil pollution” refers to the presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out of place and/or negative effects on soil are soil sealing and land consumption. Apart from at Beuchat.

Aglae P.


Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

Karel C.


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