File Name: deviance and medicalization from badness to sickness .zip
- Subcultures and Sociology
- Peter Conrad: The Médicalisation of Society
- GENDERING THE MEDICALIZATION THESIS
In the functionalist model, Parsons argued that illness is a form of deviance that disturbs the social function of a society. Discuss the functionalist perspective on illness in society, specifically the role the sick play in a specific society and how that role affects others. Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
It is understood to be expanding rather than contracting, plays out at the level of interaction or of definitions and agenda-setting, and is said to be largely harmful and costly to individuals and societies. Medicalization of global health issues would overemphasise the role of health care to health; define and frame issues in relation to disease, treatment strategies, and individual behaviour; promote the role of medical professionals and models of care; find support in industry or other advocates of technologies and pharmaceuticals; and discount social contexts, causes, and solutions. In subsequent articles, three case studies are explored, which critically examine predominant issues on the global health agenda: global mental health, non-communicable disease, and universal health coverage.
Subcultures and Sociology
Medicalization of deviant behaviour refers to the process of defining and labelling non-normative and deviant behaviours as a medical problem, typically an illness. The burgeoning use of medicine as an agent of social control, usually as medical intervention, is concomitant with the construction of deviance as an illness. In sociology, a minority group is defined as a group of people who experience relative disadvantage compared to the members of the dominant social group within a society.
The minority group membership is inextricably bound up with the definition of deviance. This is evident as the empowered "norm" is white, male, heterosexual and from middle or upper class, whereas the "abnormal" or "deviant" is people of colour, female, poverty-stricken or LGBT community. Conrad and Schneider proposed a 5-step sequential model in order to describe the process of medicalization of deviance: .
Homosexuality has been regarded as a form of sexual deviance historically in west. Only recently the medicalization of homosexuality has been challenged. First, homosexuality has been viewed as a deviant behaviour historically in the west. This is evident as homosexuality has been included in the sociological study of deviance as prototypical of central principles of deviance. In this official medical manual, homosexuality was labelled as a form of "sexual deviance" and fell under the psychiatric category of "Sociopathic Personality Disturbance".
In the s, the medicalization of homosexuality was challenged in the United states. There was a growing attack on negative definitions of homosexual conduct. PMS is becoming medicalized. Behaviours that previously were associated with neurosis, deviance, criminality or as a result of women's imagination are becoming associated with biological imbalances that could be treated medically.
First, behaviours assumed to be as a result of menstrual cycle have been labelled as deviant historically and currently, and according to Koeske the behaviours associated with menstrual cycle "are thought of as negative and implicitly, unusual, for women". Thus, it is evident that the phenomenon of medicalization of PMS have taken place. Some individual groups have strived to appoint and label the participation in new and exotic religious groups as a medical problem.
Medicalization of exotic and new religions enables the authorities to socially control the members of the society and the religious groups. Moreover, the social control efforts have often been implemented by courts, "a tactic often buttressed by mental health designation". First, the involvement in new and exotic religions was looked at as deviant in late s in the U. In a world of surging secularism, and the involvement of people in such religions was not considered normal.
Race and class are bound up with the definition and social control of deviance. Although there are "deviants" of all classes and races, however the informal markers and the stigmas associated with race often provide the foundation in social control, and this leads to medicalization for the "redeemable" white, middle and upper class and criminalization for the poor and people of colour.
Consequently, the medical model is typically a therapeutic alternative for white and financially well-off individuals. Jump to: navigation , search.
Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. Temple University Press. Essentials of Sociology. Images of deviance and social control: A sociological history.
The New Republic. September Journal of Health and Social Behavior. American Sociological Association. What is Homosexuality Doing in Deviance? January Journal of the History of Sexuality. BMJ journals : — Springer US.
Spring Feminist Studies. Duke Law Journal. American Family Physician. Journal of the American Medical Association : — Forum on Public Policy. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. This page was last edited on 2 March , at
Peter Conrad: The Médicalisation of Society
Medicalization of deviant behaviour refers to the process of defining and labelling non-normative and deviant behaviours as a medical problem, typically an illness. The burgeoning use of medicine as an agent of social control, usually as medical intervention, is concomitant with the construction of deviance as an illness. In sociology, a minority group is defined as a group of people who experience relative disadvantage compared to the members of the dominant social group within a society. The minority group membership is inextricably bound up with the definition of deviance. This is evident as the empowered "norm" is white, male, heterosexual and from middle or upper class, whereas the "abnormal" or "deviant" is people of colour, female, poverty-stricken or LGBT community.
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This classic text on the nature of deviance, originally published in , is now reissued with a new Afterword by the authors. In this new edition Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness Read Online · Download PDF. Save.
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GENDERING THE MEDICALIZATION THESIS
In a general sense, medicalization refers to how human conditions and behaviors are defined in medical terms, usually as an illness or disorder. For instance, consider the classic case of alcohol dependence. Once seen as a deviant behavior that some individuals chose to engage in, the American Psychological Association APA now defines it as alcohol use disorder AUD — a genetically heritable, medical illness.
Medicalization or medicalisation see spelling differences is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions , and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention , or treatment. Medicalization can be driven by new evidence or hypotheses about conditions; by changing social attitudes or economic considerations; or by the development of new medications or treatments. Medicalization is studied from a sociologic perspective in terms of the role and power of professionals, patients, and corporations, and also for its implications for ordinary people whose self-identity and life decisions may depend on the prevailing concepts of health and illness. Once a condition is classified as medical, a medical model of disability tends to be used in place of a social model. Medicalization may also be termed " pathologization " or pejoratively " disease mongering ". Since medicalization is the social process through which a condition becomes a medical disease in need of treatment, medicalization may be viewed as a benefit to human society. According to this view, the identification of a condition as a disease will lead to the treatment of certain symptoms and conditions, which will improve overall quality of life.
The rise of global health
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