Difference Between Centrifugal Pump And Positive Displacement Pump Pdf

difference between centrifugal pump and positive displacement pump pdf

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There are two main types of pumps available: positive displacement and centrifugal rotodynamic pump. Positive displacement pump: the working principle involves an operation that moves fluid by trapping a fixed volume, usually in a cavity, and then forcing that trapped fluid into the discharge pipe. Centrifugal pump: this involves the transfer of kinetic energy from the motor to the liquid by a spinning impeller. As the impeller rotates it draws in fluid, increasing the velocity which moves the fluid to the discharge point.

The Differences Between Centrifugal Pumps Vs. Positive Displacement Pumps

My Enquiry List: 0 items View list. Enquiry List. There are two main families of pumps; positive displacement and centrifugal rotodynamic , both of which have their uses and best areas of application. It is important however to be able to identify when each pump type should be selected, which ultimately comes down to their working principle and the application at hand. Positive displacement pumps are characterised by an operation that moves fluid by trapping a fixed volume, usually in a cavity, and then forces that trapped fluid into the discharge pipe.

A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing displacing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation. Rotodynamic pumps or dynamic pumps are a type of velocity pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity.

Across the industry, professionals are constantly working to develop and implement the latest in pump and valve technology. Recently, EmpoweringPumps. But for those who need a brush up on pump basics, we thought it would be a good time to discuss the differences between centrifugal and positive displacement pumps. Nearly all pumps fall within these two categories, with centrifugal being the most common. However, positive displacement pumps come in a wider variety such as gear, lobe, peristaltic, screw, and many other types of pumps.

What is the difference between the positive and non-positive displacement pump?

Centrifugal and positive displacement pumps are powerful tools that can move fluid through complex industrial and municipal systems. Both centrifugal and positive displacement pumps transfer water from an inlet point to an outlet point at a controlled degree of force and quantity. However, the mechanisms they use are different. Centrifugal , or aerodynamic, pumps have a spinning impeller that draws the fluid into the pump and forces it out of the outlet point at an increased velocity. Each type of pump works best with different types of fluid. Positive displacement pumps can handle highly viscous fluids, and their flow rate can increase as the fluid gets thicker.

Often times it is hard to determine when to use a centrifugal pump or a positive displacement pump. Each has its own unique properties with respect to flow rate, pressure, viscosity, and efficiency. What is the difference between a positive displacement pump vs a centrifugal pump? Centrifugal pumps produce flow by creating pressure. The pump transfers energy from the motor to the fluid by a spinning impeller.

These centrifugal pumps use a rotating impeller to create a vacuum in order to move fluid. The main difference between these types of pumps and centrifugal is that positive displacement pumps will move fluid at the same speed regardless of the pressure on the inlet end and centrifugal pumps will not.

Positive Displacement vs Centrifugal Pump

When pumping fluids from one casing to another, there are several variables to be taken into account when choosing what pump should be used. Sometimes it is better to use a centrifugal pump and at other times a positive displacement pump is preferred. In this blog, we take a short look at the way the pumps operate. Then we go further into the differences between the two pumps and give advice on when to use which pump. What is a centrifugal pump?


The dividing line in the world of pumps falls between those that push and those that throw, or more specifically, positive displacement and dynamic displacement. Positive-displacement machines use some form of variable-volume cavity to draw fluid in and push fluid out. Machines come in many rotary and reciprocating styles. Dynamic-displacement machines rely on motion imparted to the fluid by way of a rotating element, called an impeller, to increase the velocity of the fluid and so its pressure. The selection of one pump type over another is determined by many factors such as flow rates and pressures required, fluid viscosities, etc. This article outlines some commonalities of positive-displacement pumps and some distinctions between them and dynamic-displacement machines. A simple bicycle pump makes a good representation of a positive-displacement machine.

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Erin C.


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Bertrand B.


The pumps that are used to treat wastewater can be classified as either a centrifugal or positive displacement pump.

Ezechiele J.


The obvious difference between the two is in the way they operate. As displayed above, centrifugal pumps impart velocity to the liquid, resulting in pressure at the outlet. Positive displacement pumps capture confined amounts of liquid and transfers it from the suction to the discharge port.