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- Computer Programming Books
- Introduction to Computers and Programming using C++ and MATLAB
- Computer programming language
- Computer programming language
Computer Programming Books
Computer programming language , any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer. Although there are many computer languages, relatively few are widely used. In contrast, high-level languages shield a programmer from worrying about such considerations and provide a notation that is more easily written and read by programmers.
A machine language consists of the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly. Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction. Machine language is difficult to read and write, since it does not resemble conventional mathematical notation or human language, and its codes vary from computer to computer.
Assembly language is one level above machine language. It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data. Assembly language is designed to be easily translated into machine language. Although blocks of data may be referred to by name instead of by their machine addresses, assembly language does not provide more sophisticated means of organizing complex information.
Like machine language, assembly language requires detailed knowledge of internal computer architecture. It is useful when such details are important, as in programming a computer to interact with peripheral devices printers, scanners, storage devices, and so forth.
Algorithmic languages are designed to express mathematical or symbolic computations. They can express algebraic operations in notation similar to mathematics and allow the use of subprograms that package commonly used operations for reuse. They were the first high-level languages. It was intended for scientific computations with real numbers and collections of them organized as one- or multidimensional arrays. Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops so-called DO loops , and a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code.
It was immediately successful and continues to evolve. ALGOL algo rithmic l anguage was designed by a committee of American and European computer scientists during —60 for publishing algorithms , as well as for doing computations. Like LISP described in the next section , ALGOL had recursive subprograms—procedures that could invoke themselves to solve a problem by reducing it to a smaller problem of the same kind. ALGOL introduced block structure, in which a program is composed of blocks that might contain both data and instructions and have the same structure as an entire program.
Block structure became a powerful tool for building large programs out of small components. ALGOL contributed a notation for describing the structure of a programming language, Backus—Naur Form, which in some variation became the standard tool for stating the syntax grammar of programming languages.
ALGOL was widely used in Europe, and for many years it remained the language in which computer algorithms were published. Many important languages, such as Pascal and Ada both described later , are its descendants. Its capacity to structure data and programs through the composition of smaller units is comparable to that of ALGOL.
It uses a compact notation and provides the programmer with the ability to operate with the addresses of data as well as with their values. COBOL co mmon b usiness o riented l anguage has been heavily used by businesses since its inception in A committee of computer manufacturers and users and U.
Business computations organize and manipulate large quantities of data, and COBOL introduced the record data structure for such tasks.
A record clusters heterogeneous data—such as a name, an ID number, an age, and an address—into a single unit. This contrasts with scientific languages, in which homogeneous arrays of numbers are common.
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Introduction to Computers and Programming using C++ and MATLAB
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Computer programming is the process of designing and writing computer programs. As a skill set, it includes a wide variety of different tasks and techniques, but our tutorials are not intended to teach you everything. What you need to know. Our computer programming tutorials assume that you have no programming experience whatsoever. They do, however, require basic familiarity with the use of computers and web browsers. For example, you should be comfortable downloading and opening files, and using text editing software.
Software The instructions that tell the computer and computer networks what to do. Transport service protocol for a distributed operating system on LAN-based engineering workstations Our day-to-day activities: paying bills, buying groceries, using social media, seeking entertainment, work This can be best illustrated by an example. All rights reserved. Binary notation is introduced here.
Computer programming is an exciting and rewarding career. Today, you will find programmers' work used in business, medicine, gov- ernment, law enforcement,.
Computer programming language
- Я все объясню. Она попыталась высвободиться. Коммандер не отпускал .
Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja. Вы немец.
Computer programming language
Мы ищем цифровой ключ, черт его дери. А не альфа-группы. Ключ к шифру-убийце - это число. - Но, сэр, тут висячие строки. Танкадо - мастер высокого класса, он никогда не оставил бы висячие строки, тем более в таком количестве.
- Откуда нам знать, что для Танкадо было главной разницей. - На самом деле, - прервал его Дэвид, - Танкадо имел в виду первичную, а не главную разницу. Его слова буквально обожгли Сьюзан. - Первичное! - воскликнула .
И повернулась к Джаббе. - Ключ - это первичное, то есть простое число. Подумайте. Это не лишено смысла. Джабба сразу понял, что Сьюзан права. Энсей Танкадо сделал карьеру на простых числах.
Дэвид подмигнул крошечной Сьюзан на своем мониторе. - Шестьдесят четыре буквы. Юлий Цезарь всегда с нами. Мидж развела руками. - О чем. - Квадрат Цезаря, - просияла Сьюзан. - Читается сверху .
Его арабские шпили и резной фасад создавали впечатление скорее дворца - как и было задумано, - чем общественного учреждения. За свою долгую историю оно стало свидетелем переворотов, пожаров и публичных казней, однако большинство туристов приходили сюда по совершенно иной причине: туристические проспекты рекламировали его как английский военный штаб в фильме Лоуренс Аравийский.