Innovation And Design Thinking Pdf

innovation and design thinking pdf

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This course is an immersive experience into Design Thinking - an empathy-based, human-centered, and rapid prototype-driven methodology for innovation.

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Design Thinking for Social Innovation

A starter kit for leaders of social change. She uses a 3-gallon plastic container that she can easily carry on her head. The center is within easy walking distance of her home—roughly a third of a mile. It is also well known and affordable roughly 10 rupees, or 20 cents, for 5 gallons. Being able to pay the small fee has even become a status symbol for some villagers.

Shanti is forgoing the safer water because of a series of flaws in the overall design of the system. When filled with water, the plastic rectangular container is simply too heavy. The treatment center also requires them to buy a monthly punch card for 5 gallons a day, far more than they need.

The community treatment center was designed to produce clean and potable water, and it succeeded very well at doing just that. In fact, it works well for many people living in the community, particularly families with husbands or older sons who own bikes and can visit the treatment plant during working hours. The designers of the center, however, missed the opportunity to design an even better system because they failed to consider the culture and needs of all of the people living in the community.

This missed opportunity, although an obvious omission in hindsight, is all too common. Even when people do go into the field, they may enter with preconceived notions of what the needs and solutions are. This flawed approach remains the norm in both the business and social sectors. This is where many approaches founder, but it is where design thinking—a new approach to creating solutions—excels. Traditionally, designers focused their attention on improving the look and functionality of products.

In recent years designers have broadened their approach, creating entire systems to deliver products and services. Design thinking incorporates constituent or consumer insights in depth and rapid prototyping, all aimed at getting beyond the assumptions that block effective solutions.

Design thinking—inherently optimistic, constructive, and experiential—addresses the needs of the people who will consume a product or service and the infrastructure that enables it. Businesses are embracing design thinking because it helps them be more innovative, better differentiate their brands, and bring their products and services to market faster. Nonprofits are beginning to use design thinking as well to develop better solutions to social problems.

Design thinking crosses the traditional boundaries between public, for-profit, and nonprofit sectors. By working closely with the clients and consumers, design thinking allows high-impact solutions to bubble up from below rather than being imposed from the top.

Jerry Sternin, founder of the Positive Deviance Initiative and an associate professor at Tufts University until he died last year, was skilled at identifying what and critical of what he called outsider solutions to local problems.

At the time, 65 percent of Vietnamese children under age 5 suffered from malnutrition, and most solutions relied on government and UN agencies donations of nutritional supplements.

But the supplements—the outsider solution—never delivered the hoped-for results. Parents of well-nourished children collected tiny shrimps, crabs, and snails from rice paddies and added them to the food, along with the greens from sweet potatoes.

Although these foods were readily available, they were typically not eaten because they were considered unsafe for children. The positive deviants also fed their children multiple smaller meals, which allowed small stomachs to hold and digest more food each day. The Sternins and the rest of their group worked with the positive deviants to offer cooking classes to the families of children suffering from malnutrition. In addition, the effort had been replicated within 14 villages across Vietnam.

Design thinkers look for work-arounds and improvise solutions—like the shrimps, crabs, and snails—and they find ways to incorporate those into the offerings they create. Their solutions are relevant to a unique cultural context and will not necessarily work outside that specific situation.

One program that might have benefited from design thinking is mosquito net distribution in Africa. The nets are well designed and when used are effective at reducing the incidence of malaria. In northern Ghana, for instance, nets are provided free to pregnant women and mothers with children under age 5. These women can readily pick up free nets from local public hospitals. For everyone else, however, the nets are difficult to obtain. When we asked a well-educated Ghanaian named Albert, who had recently contracted malaria, whether he slept under a mosquito net, he told us no—there was no place in the city of Tamale to purchase one.

Because so many people can obtain free nets, it is not profitable for shop owners to sell them. But hospitals are not equipped to sell additional nets, either. One could say that the free nets were never intended for people like Albert—that he was simply out of the scope of the project. But that would be missing a huge opportunity. Without considering the whole system, the nets cannot be widely distributed, which makes the eradication of malaria impossible.

Initially, IDEO focused on traditional design work for business, designing products like the Palm V personal digital assistant, Oral-B toothbrushes, and Steelcase chairs.

These are the types of objects that are displayed in lifestyle magazines or on pedestals in modern art museums. By , IDEO was increasingly being asked to tackle problems that seemed far afield from traditional design.

A healthcare foundation asked us to help restructure its organization, a century-old manufacturing company wanted to better understand its clients, and a university hoped to create alternative learning environments to traditional classrooms. This type of work took IDEO from designing consumer products to designing consumer experiences. Eventually, the term design thinking stuck. As an approach, design thinking taps into capacities we all have but that are overlooked by more conventional problem-solving practices.

Not only does it focus on creating products and services that are human centered, but the process itself is also deeply human. Design thinking relies on our ability to be intuitive, to recognize patterns, to construct ideas that have emotional meaning as well as being functional, and to express ourselves in media other than words or symbols.

Nobody wants to run an organization on feeling, intuition, and inspiration, but an over-reliance on the rational and the analytical can be just as risky. Design thinking, the integrated approach at the core of the design process, provides a third way. The design thinking process is best thought of as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps.

There are three spaces to keep in mind: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The reason to call these spaces, rather than steps, is that they are not always undertaken sequentially. Projects may loop back through inspiration, ideation, and implementation more than once as the team refines its ideas and explores new directions.

Not surprisingly, design thinking can feel chaotic to those doing it for the first time. But over the life of a project, participants come to see that the process makes sense and achieves results, even though its form differs from the linear, milestone-based processes that organizations typically undertake.

Although it is true that designers do not always proceed through each of the three spaces in linear fashion, it is generally the case that the design process begins with the inspiration space—the problem or opportunity that motivates people to search for solutions.

And the classic starting point for the inspiration phase is the brief. The brief is a set of mental constraints that gives the project team a framework from which to begin, benchmarks by which they can measure progress, and a set of objectives to be realized—such as price point, available technology, and market segment.

But just as a hypothesis is not the same as an algorithm, the brief is not a set of instructions or an attempt to answer the question before it has been posed. Rather, a well-constructed brief allows for serendipity, unpredictability, and the capricious whims of fate—the creative realm from which breakthrough ideas emerge.

Too abstract and the brief risks leaving the project team wandering; too narrow a set of constraints almost guarantees that the outcome will be incremental and, likely, mediocre.

Traditional ways of doing this, such as focus groups and surveys, rarely yield important insights. In most cases, these techniques simply ask people what they want. A better starting point is for designers to go out into the world and observe the actual experiences of smallholder farmers, schoolchildren, and community health workers as they improvise their way through their daily lives.

Working with local partners who serve as interpreters and cultural guides is also important, as well as having partners make introductions to communities, helping build credibility quickly and ensuring understanding. Her task was to develop a Web site to connect rural Rwandan weavers with the world. Pecknold soon discovered that the weavers had little or no access to computers and the Internet. Rather than ask them to maintain a Web site, she reframed the brief, broadening it to ask what services could be provided to the community to help them improve their livelihoods.

Through these activities, the women were able to see for themselves what was important and valuable, rather than having an outsider make those assumptions for them. Meanwhile, the women found that a mere francs a day could be a significant, life-changing sum. This visualization process helped both Pecknold and the women prioritize their planning for the community. The second space of the design thinking process is ideation. After spending time in the field observing and doing design research, a team goes through a process of synthesis in which they distill what they saw and heard into insights that can lead to solutions or opportunities for change.

This approach helps multiply options to create choices and different insights about human behavior. These might be alternative visions of new product offerings, or choices among various ways of creating interactive experiences.

By testing competing ideas against one another, the likelihood that the outcome will be bolder and more compelling increases. Of course, more choices mean more complexity, which can make life difficult, especially for those whose job it is to control budgets and monitor timelines. The natural tendency of most organizations is to restrict choices in favor of the obvious and the incremental. Although this tendency may be more efficient in the short run, it tends to make an organization conservative and inflexible in the long run.

Divergent thinking is the route, not the obstacle, to innovation. To achieve divergent thinking, it is important to have a diverse group of people involved in the process. Multidisciplinary people—architects who have studied psychology, artists with MBAs, or engineers with marketing experience—often demonstrate this quality. On the vertical axis, every member of the team needs to possess a depth of skill that allows him or her to make tangible contributions to the outcome.

It tends to be expressed as openness, curiosity, optimism, a tendency toward learning through doing, and experimentation. These are the same traits that we seek in our new hires at IDEO.

Interdisciplinary teams typically move into a structured brainstorming process. Taking one provocative question at a time, the group may generate hundreds of ideas ranging from the absurd to the obvious. Each idea can be written on a Post-it note and shared with the team. Visual representations of concepts are encouraged, as this generally helps others understand complex ideas.

One rule during the brainstorming process is to defer judgment. This lets the group move into a process of grouping and sorting ideas. Good ideas naturally rise to the top, whereas the bad ones drop off early on.

InnoCentive provides a good example of how design thinking can result in hundreds of ideas.

Design Thinking as an effective Toolkit for Innovation.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. In this paper, we explore how and what creativity and design thinking could contribute with, if included as a part of the HCI curriculum. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.

This guide is for everyone who wants to learn to reframe business problems to customer-centric opportunity spaces that drive value. Design thinking can be your shortcut to customer empathy. A good understanding of how this method could help you identify real customer problems and unmet needs is essential. There are three types of problems: known knowns, known unknowns, and big unknowns. You usually know how to solve the known knowns. But these blind spots are your sweet spots for innovation. Take on a larger point of view by engaging in conversations with your customers.

Based on your location, we recommend you check out this version of the page instead:. A version of this tutorial originally appeared in the free Primer app. That belief is at the heart of design thinking, a practice that combines creativity and structure to solve complex problems. The skills developed through design thinking can then be applied in a variety of ways, such as a design sprint — a process for testing ideas that involves fast prototyping. So how do you get started with design thinking? When you can empathize with them and take inspiration from their needs, feelings, and motivations, your team can create meaningful solutions to actual problems.

Design Thinking Research : Taking Breakthrough Innovation Home pdf free download

A starter kit for leaders of social change. She uses a 3-gallon plastic container that she can easily carry on her head. The center is within easy walking distance of her home—roughly a third of a mile. It is also well known and affordable roughly 10 rupees, or 20 cents, for 5 gallons. Being able to pay the small fee has even become a status symbol for some villagers.

This book provides an in-depth look at design thinking, processes and innovation methods, including topics such as how to design ideas, methods and technologies, creativity experiments and questionable solutions, creative real-world collaboration and interaction. Designers and engineers, however, goes beyond the exact search for design thinking and its application to IT systems engineering, or even from a management perspective. The authors show how these methods and strategies actually work in companies, introduce new technologies and their functions, and show how thinking design can affect unexpected topics such as marriage. In addition, readers learn how to use special design thinking to solve vicious problems in complex contexts. Thinking and innovating are essentially human activities — so is the design of thinking.

While we know a lot about practices that stimulate new ideas, innovation teams often struggle to apply them.

 Ты хочешь сказать, что это уродливое дерьмовое колечко принадлежит. Глаза Беккера расширились. - Ты его. Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул. - Где оно? - не отставал Беккер.

Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены. От нее исходил легкий аромат присыпки Джонсонс беби. Его взгляд скользнул по стройной фигурке, задержался на белой блузке с едва различимым под ней бюстгальтером, на юбке до колен цвета хаки и, наконец, на ее ногах… ногах Сьюзан Флетчер.

Why Design Thinking Works

3 COMMENTS

Algernon T.

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Design Thinking (DT) evolved at many organizations as the way to solve problems in creative and innovative ways. Much of Thinking. Opens directly to PDF.

Isolda D.

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Ancelina L.

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Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems.

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