Audio Transmitter And Receiver Using Fiber Optic Cable Pdf

audio transmitter and receiver using fiber optic cable pdf

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An optical fiber or fibre in British English is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass silica or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss ; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference , a problem from which metal wires suffer.

Particularly, optical fiber communication plays a vital role in the development of high quality and high-speed telecommunication systems. Today, optical fibers are not only used in telecommunication links but also used in the Internet and local area networks LAN to achieve high signaling rates. All connecterization are.

Optical fiber

An optical fiber or fibre in British English is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass silica or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss ; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference , a problem from which metal wires suffer. Optical fibers typically include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction.

Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide.

Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together.

Another common technique is a mechanical splice , where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.

The term was coined by Indian-American physicist Narinder Singh Kapany , who is widely acknowledged as the father of fiber optics. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early s.

John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London , 12 years later. When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be totally reflected at the surface The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities.

Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the s.

In the s, Heinrich Lamm showed that one could transmit images through a bundle of unclad optical fibers and used it for internal medical examinations, but his work was largely forgotten. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan , in In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers; previous optical fibers had relied on air or impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material.

Kapany coined the term fiber optics , wrote a article in Scientific American that introduced the topic to a wide audience, and wrote the first book about the new field. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential , and employees handling the cameras had to be supervised by someone with an appropriate security clearance.

Charles K. Kao and George A. They correctly and systematically theorized the light-loss properties for optical fiber and pointed out the right material to use for such fibers— silica glass with high purity. This discovery earned Kao the Nobel Prize in Physics in Maurer , Donald Keck , Peter C. Initially, high-quality optical fibers could only be manufactured at 2 meters per second.

Chemical engineer Thomas Mensah joined Corning in and increased the speed of manufacture to over 50 meters per second, making optical fiber cables cheaper than traditional copper ones. The Italian research center CSELT worked with Corning to develop practical optical fiber cables, resulting in the first metropolitan fiber optic cable being deployed in Turin in The erbium-doped fiber amplifier , which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing or eliminating optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was developed by two teams led by David N.

The emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development in of photonic-crystal fiber , [34] which guides light by diffraction from a periodic structure, rather than by total internal reflection. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially available in Optical fiber is used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables.

It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because infrared light propagates through the fiber with much lower attenuation compared to electricity in electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Through the use of wavelength-division multiplexing WDM , each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light.

The net data rate data rate without overhead bytes per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of channels usually up to 80 in commercial dense WDM systems as of [update]. For short-distance applications, such as a network in an office building see fiber to the office , fiber-optic cabling can save space in cable ducts. Fibers are often also used for short-distance connections between devices.

For example, most high-definition televisions offer a digital audio optical connection. Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. In some applications, the sensor is itself an optical fiber. In other cases, fiber is used to connect a non-fiberoptic sensor to a measurement system. Depending on the application, fiber may be used because of its small size, or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location, or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor, or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor.

Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain , temperature , pressure , and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the property to measure modulates the intensity , phase , polarization , wavelength , or transit time of light in the fiber.

Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest since only a simple source and detector are required. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can, if required, provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter.

In contrast, highly localized measurements can be provided by integrating miniaturized sensing elements with the tip of the fiber. Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable , normally a multi-mode one, to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor—or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter. A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is their ability to reach otherwise inaccessible places. An example is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a radiation pyrometer outside the engine.

Extrinsic sensors can be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature of electrical transformers , where the extreme electromagnetic fields present make other measurement techniques impossible.

Extrinsic sensors measure vibration, rotation, displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, and torsion. A solid-state version of the gyroscope, using the interference of light, has been developed. The fiber optic gyroscope FOG has no moving parts and exploits the Sagnac effect to detect mechanical rotation. Common uses for fiber optic sensors include advanced intrusion detection security systems. The light is transmitted along a fiber optic sensor cable placed on a fence, pipeline, or communication cabling, and the returned signal is monitored and analyzed for disturbances.

This return signal is digitally processed to detect disturbances and trip an alarm if an intrusion has occurred. Optical fibers are widely used as components of optical chemical sensors and optical biosensors. Optical fiber can be used to transmit power using a photovoltaic cell to convert the light into electricity. Optical fibers have a wide number of applications.

They are used as light guides in medical and other applications where bright light needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-of-sight path. In some buildings, optical fibers route sunlight from the roof to other parts of the building see nonimaging optics. Optical-fiber lamps are used for illumination in decorative applications, including signs , art , toys and artificial Christmas trees. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product LiTraCon.

Optical fiber can also be used in structural health monitoring. This type of sensor is able to detect stresses that may have a lasting impact on structures. It is based on the principle of measuring analog attenuation. Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. A coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imaging device called an endoscope , which is used to view objects through a small hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical procedures.

Industrial endoscopes see fiberscope or borescope are used for inspecting anything hard to reach, such as jet engine interiors. Many microscopes use fiber-optic light sources to provide intense illumination of samples being studied. In spectroscopy , optical fiber bundles transmit light from a spectrometer to a substance that cannot be placed inside the spectrometer itself, in order to analyze its composition.

A spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off and through them. By using fibers, a spectrometer can be used to study objects remotely. An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as erbium can be used as the gain medium of a laser or optical amplifier. Rare-earth-doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular undoped optical fiber line. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in addition to the signal wave.

Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber, which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission. Optical fiber is also widely exploited as a nonlinear medium. The glass medium supports a host of nonlinear optical interactions, and the long interaction lengths possible in fiber facilitate a variety of phenomena, which are harnessed for applications and fundamental investigation.

Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter collect scintillation light in physics experiments. Fiber-optic sights for handguns, rifles, and shotguns use pieces of optical fiber to improve visibility of markings on the sight. An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide nonconducting waveguide that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials.

The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber , or gradual, in graded-index fiber. Light can be fed into optical fibers using lasers or LEDs. Fiber is immune to electrical interference; there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables and no pickup of environmental noise.

Information traveling inside the optical fiber is even immune to electromagnetic pulses generated by nuclear devices. Fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber useful for protecting communications equipment in high voltage environments such as power generation facilities, or metal communication structures that are prone to lightning strikes. The electrical isolation also prevents problems with ground loops.

Because there is no electricity in optical cables that could potentially generate sparks, they can be used in environments where explosive fumes are present.


Optical fiber is rising in both telecommunication and data communication due to its unsurpassed advantages: faster speed with less attenuation, less impervious to electromagnetic interference EMI , smaller size and greater information carrying capacity. The unceasing bandwidth needs, on the other hand, are also yielding significant growth in optical fiber demands. Optical fiber uses light pulses instead of electrical pulses to transmit information, thus delivers hundreds of times higher bandwidth than traditional electrical systems. Fiber optic cable can be protected by sheathing and armor to make it resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Hence it is widely adopted in commercial business, governments, military and many other industries for voice, video and data transmission. Figure 1: Optical fiber structure. Generally, there are three types of fiber optic cables: the two glass optical fiber—single mode fiber optic cable and multimode optical fiber, as well as plastic optical fiber POF.

Audio Transmitter and receiver System using Fiber Optic Cable

The Fiber Optic Cabling Infrastructure. Fibre should be easily identified by colour or position within the cable core. The unit also includes the material and labor costs for installing the suspension strand lashing wire attachments to strand and bonding of the cable shield and suspension An optical transmission system can be resumed as follows Source of digital signals transmitting electrical optical converter Optical Fiber cable Possible repeaters for signal regeneration Receiving optical electrical converter digital receiver.

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Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Types of Optical Fibers. URLs for Further Generally core diameter is No of Modes? Plan was necessary to modify to meet the BT's business plan before Project started in April.

Analog Audio over one fiber Transmitter and Receiver kit helps solve sending unbalanced audio over long distances using Fiber. We have several diferent models supporting 2, 4, 8,16 and 32 analog XLR Audio. The audio fiber optic Transmitter, converts analog Audio 20hz to 20Khz fiber optic modulated digital stream so it could be transported over single mode or multimode fiber. Offers very low latency 1ms so it's perfect for live events, shows, concerts, auditoriums, etc.

As the data rate required by different applications increases optical fiber networks are becoming the dominant transmission medium then other.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Optical Fiber

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This project is primarily meant for educational purposes, especially designed keeping in mind to showcase various communication units for electronics and electrical students. The encouragement, patience, technical support, enthusiasm provided by our esteemed institution, has been crucial in making this project a reality. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer,. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Mohapatra Published Limitations of copper wires, electrical wires result in dispersion and distortion of the message signal or source of any signal for long distances communication. As the data rate required by different applications increases optical fiber networks are becoming the dominant transmission medium then other communication system. Optical signals can be easily sent directionally using a variety of sources such as LED light emitting diodes with lenses or collimated lasers.

This project is primarily meant for educational purposes, especially designed keeping in mind to showcase various communication units for electronics and electrical students.


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