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- Affinity and Avidity of Antibodies
- Antigen Antibody Interactions Principles and Applications
- Antigen-antibody interaction
- 12.2E: Agglutination Reactions
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Affinity and Avidity of Antibodies
Immunoassays are laboratory techniques based on the detection of antibody production in response to foreign antigens. Immunology is the study of molecules, cells, and organs that make up the immune system. The function of the immune system is to recognize self antigens from non-self antigens and defend the body against non-self foreign agents. The first line of defense against infection is intact skin, mucosal membrane surfaces, and secretions that prevent pathogens from penetrating into the body. When a foreign agent penetrates the first line of resistance, an immune reaction is elicited and immune cells are recruited into the site of infection to clear microorganisms and damaged cells by phagocytosis.
Antigen Antibody Interactions Principles and Applications
Agglutination reactions are used to assess the presence of antibodies in a specimen by mixing it with particulate antigens. Agglutination is the visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies. Agglutination reactions apply to particulate test antigens that have been conjugated to a carrier. The carrier could be artificial such as latex or charcoal particles or biological such as red blood cells. These conjugated particles are reacted with patient serum presumably containing antibodies. The endpoint of the test is the observation of clumps resulting from that antigen-antibody complex formation.
Fundamentals of Immunology pp Cite as. The union of antibody and antigen gives rise to a series of reactions, the qualitative or semiquantitative study of which is the domain of serology. Unable to display preview.
12.2E: Agglutination Reactions
Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction , is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. The antigens and antibodies combine by a process called agglutination. It is the fundamental reaction in the body by which the body is protected from complex foreign molecules, such as pathogens and their chemical toxins.
Protocol DOI: Antigen—antibody interaction. Antigen—antibody interactions are a special class of protein—protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen—antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank PDB. AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen—antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs.
The exquisite specificity of antigen-antibody interactions has led to the development of a variety of immunologic assays, which can be used to detect the presence of either antibody or antigen. Immunoassays have played vital roles in diagnosing diseases, monitoring the level of the humoral immune response, and identifying molecules of biological or medical interest. These assays differ in their speed and sensitivity; some are strictly qualitative, others are quantitative. This chapter examines the nature of the antigen-antibody interaction, and it describes various immunologic assays that measure or exploit this interaction. Strength of Antigen-Antibody Interactions The noncovalent interactions that form the basis of antigenantibody Ag-Ab binding include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions Figure
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