Qualitative And Quantitative Research Methods In Sociology Pdf

qualitative and quantitative research methods in sociology pdf

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The simple answer is that without it, our knowledge of the social world is limited to our immediate and limited life-experiences. Without some kind of systematic research, we cannot know the answer to even basic questions such as how many people live in the United Kingdom, let alone the answers to more complex questions about why working class children get worse results at school or why the crime rate has been falling every year since So the most basic reason for doing social research is to describe the social world around us: To find out what people think and feel about social issues and how these thoughts and feelings vary across social groups and regions.

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.

Research Methods in Sociology – An Introduction

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon. Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.

Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i. Its main characteristics are :. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods :. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, ; Quantitative Research Methods. Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods.

Los Angeles, CA: Sage, Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results. A descriptive study is governed by the following rules: subjects are generally measured once; the intention is to only establish associations between variables; and, the study may include a sample population of hundreds or thousands of subjects to ensure that a valid estimate of a generalized relationship between variables has been obtained.

An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. Introduction The introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view.

It covers the following information:. Methodology The methods section of a quantitative study should describe how each objective of your study will be achieved. Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. The methods section should be presented in the past tense. Results The finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format.

In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made.

Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be found here. Discussion Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study. The discussion should be presented in the present tense. Conclusion End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study.

Black, Thomas R. London: Sage, ; Gay,L. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Bates College; Nenty, H. Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Kennesaw State University. Quantitative researchers try to recognize and isolate specific variables contained within the study framework, seek correlation, relationships and causality, and attempt to control the environment in which the data is collected to avoid the risk of variables, other than the one being studied, accounting for the relationships identified.

Among the specific strengths of using quantitative methods to study social science research problems:. Sharpe, ; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative methods presume to have an objective approach to studying research problems, where data is controlled and measured, to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of behavior.

As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be statistically significant but are often humanly insignificant. Some specific limitations associated with using quantitative methods to study research problems in the social sciences include:. SAGE publications is a major publisher of studies about how to design and conduct research in the social and behavioral sciences.

The database also includes case studies outlining the research methods used in real research projects. This is an excellent source for finding definitions of key terms and descriptions of research design and practice, techniques of data gathering, analysis, and reporting, and information about theories of research [e.

The database covers both qualitative and quantitative research methods as well as mixed methods approaches to conducting research. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.

The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Its main characteristics are : The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought.

All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships.

Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data. Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods : Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating. Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section.

Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis.

Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set. Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure ; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it. Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated.

When using inferential statistics , provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].

Avoid inferring causality , particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation. Use tables to provide exact values ; use figures to convey global effects. Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible. Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures.

Basic Research Design for Quantitative Studies Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results.

It covers the following information: Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being investigated.

Reviews the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis. Note where key gaps exist and how your study helps to fill these gaps or clarifies existing knowledge. Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. If necessary, define unfamiliar or complex terms, concepts, or ideas and provide the appropriate background information to place the research problem in proper context [e.

Study population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Note the procedures used for their selection; Data collection — describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i.

If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you used and why. Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering data.

Data analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data.

Statistical analysis -- how did you analyze the data? What were the key findings from the data? The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order.

Describe but do not interpret these trends or negative results; save that for the discussion section. The results should be presented in the past tense. Interpretation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study. Did they affirm predicted outcomes or did the data refute it?

Social Research – Definition, Types and Methods

Qualitative and quantitative methods in health: definitions, differences and research subjects. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Campinas, SP, Brasil. The interest and accomplishments in qualitative research have been increasing in health. As a consequence, there is a greater demand for both institutional research programs and scientific journal publications. This article has the following purposes: a to present some definitions in qualitative methods used in Humanities and Health; b to compare them to the usual quantitative methods of health sciences; and, finally, c to illustrate the subject with the most important constructs in these methodological fields.

Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects and works with non-numerical data and that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places. People often frame it in opposition to quantitative research , which uses numerical data to identify large-scale trends and employs statistical operations to determine causal and correlative relationships between variables. Within sociology, qualitative research is typically focused on the micro-level of social interaction that composes everyday life, whereas quantitative research typically focuses on macro-level trends and phenomena. Qualitative research has a long history in sociology and has been used within it for as long as the field has existed. This type of research has long appealed to social scientists because it allows the researchers to investigate the meanings people attribute to their behavior, actions, and interactions with others. While quantitative research is useful for identifying relationships between variables, like, for example, the connection between poverty and racial hate, it is qualitative research that can illuminate why this connection exists by going directly to the source—the people themselves.

Published on June 12, by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on February 15, Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research , which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data e. Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc.

Research Methods

By Saul McLeod , updated Jump to Quantitative Research Data. Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language.

Sociologists employ a variety of research methods that may follow the scientific method to evaluate formal hypotheses, or be more humanistic and focus on ways people themselves understand and describe their social worlds. Sociological research follows established ethical guidelines that protect participants and ensure integrity in research. Quantitative methods include measurement by sample surveys, statistical modeling, social networks, and demography.

Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a detailed, systematic, scientific method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework. Planning the research design is a key step in any sociological study.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Different socio-economic groups belonging to different parts of a county think differently. Various aspects of human behavior need to be addressed to understand their thoughts and feedback about the social world, which can be done using Social Research.

Social research methods : qualitative and quantitative approaches

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 Очень остроумно. - Вы болван, Стратмор, - сказал Хейл, сплюнув.  - К вашему сведению, ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся. - Что ты говоришь? - засмеялся Стратмор.  - Что же ты предлагаешь. Открыть дверь и вызвать сотрудников отдела систем безопасности, я угадал.

Его слова не сразу дошли до ее сознания. Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. Хейл, видимо, не догадывается, что она видела его внизу. - Стратмор знает, что я это видел! - Хейл сплюнул.  - Он и меня убьет. Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо.


For example, qualitative methods can be applied in conjunction with quantitative ones (see Chapter 14 “Mixed Methods Research” in this volume).


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