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This article delineates the history of urban planning , a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks. The history of urban planning runs parallel to the history of the city , as planning is in evidence at some of the earliest known urban sites.
The pre-Classical and Classical periods saw a number of cities laid out according to fixed plans, though many tended to develop organically.
Designed cities were characteristic of the Minoan , Mesopotamian , Harrapan , and Egyptian civilisations of the third millennium BC see Urban planning in ancient Egypt. The first recorded description of urban planning appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh : "Go up on to the wall of Uruk and walk around. Inspect the foundation platform and scrutinise the brickwork.
Testify that its bricks are baked bricks, And that the Seven Counsellors must have laid its foundations. One square mile is city, one square mile is orchards, one square mile is claypits, as well as the open ground of Ishtar 's temple. Three square miles and the open ground comprise Uruk. Look for the copper tablet-box, Undo its bronze lock, Open the door to its secret, Lift out the lapis lazuli tablet and read.
Distinct characteristics of urban planning from remains of the cities of Harappa , Lothal , Dholavira , and Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley Civilisation in modern-day northwestern India and Pakistan lead archeologists to interpret them as the earliest known examples of deliberately planned and managed cities. Archaeological evidence suggests that many Harrapan houses were laid out to protect from noise and to enhance residential privacy; many also had their own water wells, probably both for sanitary and for ritual purposes.
These ancient cities were unique in that they often had drainage systems, seemingly tied to a well-developed ideal of urban sanitation. Many Central American civilisations also planned their cities, including sewage systems and running water. In Mexico , Tenochtitlan , built on an island in Lake Texcoco in the present-day Mexico City in central Mexico, served as the capital of the Aztec empire. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with over , inhabitants.
Aristotle called him "the father of city planning",  and until well into the 20th century, he was indeed regarded as such.
This is, however, only partly justified. The Hippodamian plan that was called after him, is an orthogonal urban layout with more or less square street blocks. Archaeological finds from ancient Egypt—among others—demonstrate that Hippodamus cannot truly have been the inventor of this layout.
From about the late 8th century on, Greek city-states started to found colonies along the coasts of the Mediterranean, which were centred on newly created towns and cities with more or less regular orthogonal plans. Gradually, the new layouts became more regular. Following in the tradition of Hippodamus about a century later, Alexander commissioned the architect Dinocrates to lay out his new city of Alexandria , the grandest example of idealised urban planning of the ancient Hellenistic world , where the city's regularity was facilitated by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.
The ancient Romans also employed regular orthogonal structures on which they molded their colonies. The Roman engineer Vitruvius established principles of good design whose influence is still felt today. The Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for civil convenience.
The basic plan consisted of a central forum with city services, surrounded by a compact, rectilinear grid of streets. A river sometimes flowed near or through the city, providing water, transport, and sewage disposal.
Many European towns, such as Turin , preserve the remains of these schemes, which show the very logical way the Romans designed their cities.
They would lay out the streets at right angles, in the form of a square grid. All roads were equal in width and length, except for two, which were slightly wider than the others. The decumanus , running east—west, and the cardo , running north—south, intersected in the middle to form the centre of the grid.
All roads were made of carefully fitted flag stones and filled in with smaller, hard-packed rocks and pebbles. Bridges were constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insula , the Roman equivalent of a modern city block. As the city developed, it could eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and criss-crossed with back roads and alleys. The city may have been surrounded by a wall to protect it from invaders and to mark the city limits.
Areas outside city limits were left open as farmland. At the end of each main road was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege, and additional watchtowers were constructed along the city walls. An aqueduct was built outside the city walls. The development of Greek and Roman urbanisation is relatively well-known, as there are relatively many written sources, and there has been much attention to the subject since the Romans and Greeks are generally regarded as the main ancestors of modern Western culture.
It should not be forgotten, though, that there were also other cultures with more or less urban settlements in Europe, primarily of Celtic origin. After the gradual disintegration and fall of the West-Roman empire in the 5th century and the devastation by the invasions of Huns, Germanic peoples, Byzantines, Moors, Magyars, and Normans in the next five centuries, little remained of urban culture in western and central Europe.
In the 10th and 11th centuries, though, there appears to have been a general improvement in the political stability and economy. This made it possible for trade and craft to grow and for the monetary economy and urban culture to revive. Initially, urban culture recovered particularly in existing settlements, often in remnants of Roman towns and cities, but later on, ever more towns were created anew.
Meanwhile, the population of western Europe increased rapidly and the utilised agricultural area grew with it. The agricultural areas of existing villages were extended and new villages and towns were created in uncultivated areas as cores for new reclamations. Urban development in the early Middle Ages, characteristically focused on a fortress, a fortified abbey, or a sometimes abandoned Roman nucleus, occurred "like the annular rings of a tree",  whether in an extended village or the centre of a larger city.
Since the new centre was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.
In the 9th to 14th centuries, many hundreds of new towns were built in Europe, and many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. These new towns and town extensions have played a very important role in the shaping of Europe's geographical structures as they in modern times. New towns were founded in different parts of Europe from about the 9th century on, but most of them were realised from the 12th to 14th centuries, with a peak-period at the end of the 13th. All kinds of landlords, from the highest to the lowest rank, tried to found new towns on their estates, in order to gain economical, political or military power.
The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal, economic, and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates.
From the evidence of the preserved towns, it appears that the formal structure of many of these towns was willfully planned. The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form, in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another, and that the house lots are rectangular, and originally largely of the same size. The deep depression around the middle of the 14th century marked the end of the period of great urban expansion.
Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanisation had started relatively late, as in eastern Europe, was it still to go on for one or two more centuries. It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again, although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Florence was an early model of the new urban planning, which took on a star-shaped layout adapted from the new star fort, designed to resist cannon fire. This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotised by one city type which for a century and a half — from Filarete to Scamozzi — was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city".
Only in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael 's Sposalizio Illustration of As built, the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city centre, that of Vigevano —95 , resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading. Filarete 's ideal city, building on Leon Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria , was named " Sforzinda " in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figure , the circle, took no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript.
Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIV , in which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city.
His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new Baroque style, modeled on Turin , with a logical street layout, with straight avenues offering long, uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size.
This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities, who wanted a rapid reconstruction, did not have the resources for grandiose proposals, and resented what they considered the imposition of a new, foreign, architectural style.
In the actual reconstruction, the general layout of the city was conserved, but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means, authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow, sanitation, and the aesthetics of the city.
Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. During this period, rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation. Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction.
An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of when, despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wren , no large-scale redesigning was achieved due to the complexities of rival ownership claims. However, improvements were made in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets, stone construction and access to the river.
The Great Fire did, however, stimulate thinking about urban design that influenced city planning in North America. The Grand Model for the Province of Carolina , developed in the aftermath of the Great Fire, established a template for colonial planning. In contrast, after the Lisbon earthquake , King Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city.
The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and "laying out new streets without restraint". This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe. An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris. Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. A concurrent plan to extend Barcelona was based on a scientific analysis of the city and its modern requirements.
His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants, towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximise the sunlight they received, and assist social integration. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century.
The industrialised cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate, with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns.
The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming increasingly evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era , was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged.
Around , theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age , by providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments. Modern zoning , which enabled planners to legally demarcate sections of cities for different functions, originated in Prussia, and spread to Britain, the US, and Scandinavia. The first major urban planning theorist was Sir Ebenezer Howard , who initiated the garden city movement in This was inspired by earlier planned communities built by industrial philanthropists in the countryside, such as Cadburys ' Bournville , Lever's Port Sunlight and George Pullman 's eponymous Pullman in Chicago.
All these settlements decentralised the working environment from the centre of the cities, and provided a healthy living space for the factory workers. Howard generalised this achievement into a planned movement for the country as a whole. He was also influenced by the work of economist Alfred Marshall who argued in that industry needed a supply of labour that could in theory be supplied anywhere, and that companies have an incentive to improve workers living standards as the company bears much of the cost inflicted by the unhealthy urban conditions in the big cities.
Howard's ideas, although utopian, were also highly practical and were adopted around the world in the ensuing decades. His garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by parks, containing proportionate and separate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.
Architecture and Urban Planning
Urban planning , also known as regional planning , town planning , city planning , or rural planning , is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas , such as transportation , communications , and distribution networks and their accessibility. Sustainable development was added as one of the main goals of all planning endeavors in the late 20th century when the detrimental economic and the environmental impacts of the previous models of planning had become apparent. Similarly, in the early 21st century, Jane Jacob 's writings on legal and political perspectives to emphasize the interests of residents, businesses and communities effectively influenced urban planners to take into broader consideration of resident experiences and needs while planning. Urban planning answers questions about how people will live, work and play in a given area and thus, guides orderly development in urban, suburban and rural areas. Urban planning is a dynamic field since the questions around how people live, work and play changes with time.
This article delineates the history of urban planning , a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks. The history of urban planning runs parallel to the history of the city , as planning is in evidence at some of the earliest known urban sites. The pre-Classical and Classical periods saw a number of cities laid out according to fixed plans, though many tended to develop organically. Designed cities were characteristic of the Minoan , Mesopotamian , Harrapan , and Egyptian civilisations of the third millennium BC see Urban planning in ancient Egypt. The first recorded description of urban planning appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh : "Go up on to the wall of Uruk and walk around.
Jump to navigation. Apply Now. Career Outlook. Student Experience. Meet Planning Faculty. If you're from one of 15 Western states, you're now eligible for Arizona resident tuition pricing for the MS Urban Planning. The two-year Master of Science in Urban Planning from the University of Arizona prepares you for a meaningful career where you'll shape a more resilient future for cities and communities, locally and across the globe.
This thesis presents a detailed analysis of architecture and urban planning Keywords: Energy efficiency, Nanjing, China, urban planning, passive house, low Agency, Paris, France, wifusion.org
Architecture & Urban Planning
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Landscape and Urban Planning is an international journal aimed at advancing conceptual, scientific, and applied understandings of landscape in order to promote sustainable solutions for landscape change. Landscapes are visible and integrative social-ecological systems with variable spatial and temporal Landscapes are visible and integrative social-ecological systems with variable spatial and temporal dimensions.
Students in the Urban Planning concentration work on exterior and public spaces at where community and societal issues merge with policy and place. This concentration encourages students to investigate the broad array of components that contribute to a sustainable human environment. The systems perspective inherent in this concentration lends to developing expertise in organizational and interorganizational behaviour as well as political influences on decisions affecting society and place. Based on individual interests, students might particularly consider graduate course offerings in the following departments:. Skip to main content.
This article addresses an urban design issue at a micro-urban design level; the spaces between buildings on neighboring blocks or the side yards, how such spaces they are used, and their social impact on resid Authors: Amir Shojai and Kaveh Fattahi. Citation: City, Territory and Architecture 8 Content type: Research article. Published on: 12 February
The annual Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University, Architecture and Urban Planning reflects most of the research themes and content of global and local problems in the regional context not only of Baltic Sea area, but also other regions in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The authors of articles are researchers and PhD students. The Scientific Journal publishes articles Ahead of Print during the year and closes the issue in December. Information presented in the journal may be useful in professional creative work of architects, urban planners, as well as to institutions responsible for preservation and protection of cultural heritage. Architecture and Urban Planning is an Open Access journal.
Несмотря на свой внушительный вид, дешифровальное чудовище отнюдь не было островом в океане. Хотя криптографы были убеждены, что система фильтров Сквозь строй предназначалась исключительно для защиты этого криптографического декодирующего шедевра, сотрудники лаборатории систем безопасности знали правду. Фильтры служили куда более высокой цели - защите главной базы данных АНБ. Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания.
- И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку.