Operant Conditioning And Classical Conditioning Pdf

operant conditioning and classical conditioning pdf

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Operant conditioning also called instrumental conditioning is a type of associative learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.

Permalink Print. Operant conditioning is a theory of learning in behavioral psychology which emphasises the role of reinforcement in conditioning. The theory was developed by the American psychologist B.

Difference Between Classical and Operant Conditioning

Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are quite different. To understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical and operant conditioning differ from one another. Let's start by looking at some of the most basic differences. Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior.

Classical Conditioning and How It Relates to Pavlov’s Dog

When you learn through classical conditioning, an automatic conditioned response is paired with a specific stimulus. This creates a behavior. The best-known example of this is from what some believe to be the father of classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov. In an experiment on canine digestion, he found that over time dogs were salivating not only when their food was presented to them, but when the people who fed them arrived. These dogs learned to associate the bell ringing with food, causing their mouths to salivate whenever the bell rang — not just when they encountered the food. For instance, getting ill from a certain food helps us associate that food with sickness. In turn, that helps prevent us from getting sick in the future.

Classical Conditioning

The difference between classical and operant conditioning is the way in which a new behavior is acquired. Understanding these terms can help you with some important concepts in the field of psychology and seeing some examples of both will make their differences clear. Classical conditioning is when a conditioned response is paired with a neutral stimulus. The metronome was a neutral stimulus, since the dogs previously had no reaction to it.

By Saul McLeod , updated Classical conditioning also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning is learning through association and was discovered by Pavlov , a Russian physiologist. In simple terms, two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. The most famous example of classical conditioning was Pavlov's experiment with dogs , who salivated in response to a bell tone. Pavlov showed that when a bell was sounded each time the dog was fed, the dog learned to associate the sound with the presentation of the food.

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

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Posted on Updated: Mar 2, Categories Psychology.



Ivan Pavlov — was a Russian scientist whose work with dogs has been influential in understanding how learning occurs.

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Operant conditioning. 2. Conditioned. response. I. Iversen, Iver H.,