Sign And Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus Pdf

sign and symptoms of diabetes mellitus pdf

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Type 2 diabetes T2D , formerly known as adult-onset diabetes , is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin. The classic symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination polyuria , increased thirst polydipsia , increased hunger polyphagia , and weight loss. Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk. There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene known as monogenic forms of diabetes or "other specific types of diabetes".

Diabetes Symptoms

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.

A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments. Learn more about how these types differ from one another. In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive , erectile dysfunction ED , and poor muscle strength. Women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infections , yeast infections , and dry, itchy skin.

It may also cause recurring infections. This is because elevated glucose levels make it harder for the body to heal. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.

In rare cases, a woman with gestational diabetes will also experience increased thirst or urination. Learn which signs should prompt a trip to the doctor.

For some reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Genes may play a role in some people. Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases your risk too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly , makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.

This condition runs in families. Family members share genes that make them more likely to get type 2 diabetes and to be overweight. Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. This can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy. Women who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during their pregnancy are more likely to get gestational diabetes.

Both genes and environmental factors play a role in triggering diabetes. Get more information here on the causes of diabetes.

Your family, environment, and preexisting medical conditions can all affect your odds of developing diabetes. High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout your body. The higher your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the greater your risk for complications. Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to problems that affect both the mother and baby. Complications affecting the baby can include:. The mother can develop complications such as high blood pressure preeclampsia or type 2 diabetes.

She may also require cesarean delivery , commonly referred to as a C-section. Diabetes can lead to serious medical complications, but you can manage the condition with medications and lifestyle changes. Avoid the most common diabetes complications with these helpful tips. Doctors treat diabetes with a few different medications.

Some of these drugs are taken by mouth , while others are available as injections. Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. There are four types of insulin that are most commonly used. Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes. You may need to take more than one of these drugs. Some people with type 2 diabetes also take insulin. According to the Mayo Clinic, about 10 to 20 percent of women with gestational diabetes will need insulin to lower their blood sugar.

Insulin is safe for the growing baby. The drug or combination of drugs that your doctor prescribes will depend on the type of diabetes you have — and its cause. Check out this list of the various medications that are available to treat diabetes. Healthy eating is a central part of managing diabetes.

In some cases, changing your diet may be enough to control the disease. Your blood sugar level rises or falls based on the types of foods you eat. Starchy or sugary foods make blood sugar levels rise rapidly. Protein and fat cause more gradual increases.

Your medical team may recommend that you limit the amount of carbohydrates you eat each day. Work with a dietitian who can help you design a diabetes meal plan. Getting the right balance of protein, fat, and carbs can help you control your blood sugar.

Check out this guide to starting a type 1 diabetes diet. Eating the right types of foods can both control your blood sugar and help you lose any excess weight. Carb counting is an important part of eating for type 2 diabetes. A dietitian can help you figure out how many grams of carbohydrates to eat at each meal.

In order to keep your blood sugar levels steady, try to eat small meals throughout the day. Emphasize healthy foods such as:. Certain other foods can undermine efforts to keep your blood sugar in control. Discover the foods you should avoid if you have diabetes. Eating a well-balanced diet is important for both you and your baby during these nine months.

Making the right food choices can also help you avoid diabetes medications. Watch your portion sizes, and limit sugary or salty foods. Although you need some sugar to feed your growing baby, you should avoid eating too much. Consider making an eating plan with the help of a dietitian or nutritionist. Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy.

Doctors use these blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:. To diagnose gestational diabetes , your doctor will test your blood sugar levels between the 24th and 28th weeks of your pregnancy. The earlier you get diagnosed with diabetes, the sooner you can start treatment. Find out whether you should get tested, and get more information on tests your doctor might perform. Yet many other diabetes risk factors are controllable.

Most diabetes prevention strategies involve making simple adjustments to your diet and fitness routine. Discover more strategies that may help you avoid this chronic disease.

Hormones produced by the placenta can make your body more resistant to the effects of insulin. Some women who had diabetes before they conceived carry it with them into pregnancy. This is called pre-gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes should go away after you deliver, but it does significantly increase your risk for getting diabetes later. About half of women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years of delivery, according to the International Diabetes Federation IDF.

Having diabetes during your pregnancy can also lead to complications for your newborn, such as jaundice or breathing problems. Find out more about the effect of diabetes on pregnancy. Children can get both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Controlling blood sugar is especially important in young people, because the disease can damage important organs such as the heart and kidneys.

The autoimmune form of diabetes often starts in childhood. One of the main symptoms is increased urination. Extreme thirst, fatigue, and hunger are also signs of the condition. The disease can cause high blood sugar and dehydration , which can be medical emergencies. Now that more children are overweight or obese , type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in this age group.

The disease is often diagnosed during a physical exam. Untreated type 2 diabetes can cause lifelong complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, and blindness. Healthy eating and exercise can help your child manage their blood sugar and prevent these problems. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than ever in young people.

Some types of diabetes — like type 1 — are caused by factors that are out of your control. Others — like type 2 — can be prevented with better food choices, increased activity, and weight loss. Discuss potential diabetes risks with your doctor. Good foot care is important for people with diabetes to avoid complications. Semglee is an alternative for people with diabetes who now use long-acting injectable insulin products such as Lantus.

The three P's of diabetes refer to the most common symptoms of the condition.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That's because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood. However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition.

PDF | Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which symptoms by losing weight, following a h​ealthy diet, for others they are a sign of diabetes - high blood-.

Biochemicophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Signs and Symptoms Associated with Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.

Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease, affecting people of all geographic, ethnic or racial origin and its prevalence is increasing globally 1. Burden from this costly disease is high on the low and middle income countries LMIC where the impacts of modernization and urbanization have caused marked adverse changes in lifestyle parameters. In , of the estimated million people with diabetes globally, more than 80 per cent lived in LMIC. It was estimated that India had This number is predicted to increase to million by unless steps are taken to prevent new cases of diabetes 1.

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.

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Diabetes: The differences between types 1 and 2

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Auxiliadora G.


Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.



Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in which there is an increase in blood glucose level due to insulin resistance or beta cell.

Roger H.


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