Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetic Retinopathy Pdf

signs and symptoms of diabetic retinopathy pdf

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Retinopathy means that disease has damaged the retina. The retina is the part inside the eye that senses light.

Diabetic retinopathy

Retinopathy means that disease has damaged the retina. The retina is the part inside the eye that senses light. Different diseases can cause retinopathy. There can be partial or complete loss of vision. Retinopathy can develop slowly or suddenly, can get better on its own or lead to permanent damage.

The retina contains many blood vessels. Abnormalities in these vessels are a major cause of retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy occurs in people who have high blood pressure. High blood pressure causes blood vessel abnormalities. Abnormalities may include thickening of the small arteries, blockages of retinal blood vessels and bleeding from them. Sudden, severe high blood pressure may cause swelling of the optic nerve People with this disease frequently have no symptoms in the early stages.

It may be discovered during a routine eye exam. Central serous retinopathy. Central serous retinopathy begins for reasons that are not well understood. In this condition, fluid accumulates in the membrane behind the retina. The fluid seeps in between layers of the retina and causes them to separate.

This results in blurred vision or poor night vision. Retinopathy of prematurit y — There are no outward physical signs. Only an experienced ophthalmologist can find signs of this illness. Diabetic retinopathy — Symptoms may not be noticed until the late stages of the illness. Symptoms can include:. Hypertensive retinopathy — There are often no symptoms. Some people complain of blurred vision. Retinopathy of prematurity — An ophthalmologist examines the inside of the eye for abnormalities.

Diabetic retinopathy — An ophthalmologist examines the retina and inside of the eye. He or she uses a lighted instrument called an ophthalmoscope. A dye may be used to reveal leaky blood vessels. Hypertensive retinopathy — A physician examines the eye with an ophthalmoscope. He or she looks for pale or white areas of the retina. These areas are pale because they are not getting enough blood.

The doctor also may see bleeding from ruptured blood vessels or swelling of the retina or optic nerve. Central serous retinopathy — A doctor or ophthalmologist uses an ophthalmoscope to detect fluid between layers of the retina. This fluid can resemble bubbles.

Retinopathy of prematurity — In most affected babies, this condition gets better on its own. Abnormal vessels disappear.

A small number of more serious cases get worse without treatment. Babies who need treatment are treated in the first few months of life. It is usually possible to know within months whether there is any significant long-term damage to vision. Diabetic retinopathy — Controlling blood sugar and blood pressure can slow or halt the progress of the disease. Treatments can repair existing damage. Hypertensive retinopathy — Lowering blood pressure often can stop ongoing damage to the retina.

However, some existing damage can persist. Central serous retinopathy — Most cases go away without any treatment within three to four months. Full vision can return within six months. Retinopathy of prematurity — The first line of defense is regular prenatal care. This helps to prevent premature birth. Premature and low-birth-weight infants should be screened for retinopathy of prematurity if they:. ROP can be caused by or get worse from inadequate or too much oxygen after birth.

Therefore, oxygen levels are closely monitored and adjusted. Diabetic retinopathy — Controlling blood sugar and blood pressure are essential to prevent diabetic retinopathy.

Annual eye exams are crucial for people with diabetes. If you have diabetic retinopathy, you should have more frequent eye exams. Treatment can start before sight is affected, which helps prevent vision loss. Central serous retinopathy — The possible causes of this disease are not understood. Therefore, prevention is difficult. Because central serous retinopathy has been associated with corticosteroid treatment, high blood pressure and caffeine use, limiting the amount of corticosteroids and caffeine and maintaining a normal blood pressure are important measures.

Retinopathy of prematurity — No treatment is recommended during the early, milder stages. However, close monitoring is essential. An ophthalmologist should examine high-risk infants before they are discharged from the hospital. Infants should be examined again at 8 weeks of age. If the disease is active, the infant should be examined every 1 to 2 weeks until he or she is 14 weeks old.

After that, they should be examined every 1 to 2 months. More advanced disease may require treatment. Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF inhibitors including bevacizumab, and ranibizumab can be injected into the eye as the initial treatment.

Laser treatments may also be used. A detached retina can be reattached. An older procedure called cryotherapy uses cold to destroy abnormal blood vessels and may be used when laser treatment is not available. Diabetic retinopathy — No therapy may be needed for mild to moderate nonproliferative disease. Otherwise, specific treatment depends on the nature and severity of disease, preferences of the patient and cost. Treatment options include:. Laser photocoagulation is usually done in a doctor's office.

The ophthalmologist uses a laser to make a series of tiny burns around the retinal tear. This creates a barrier of scar tissue that stops the tear from getting bigger. For all type of diabetic retinopathy, blood sugar and blood pressure must be controlled to keep the eye disease from getting worse.

Hypertensive retinopathy — Medications can lower blood pressure. This can lead to improvements in the retina. People with very high blood pressure and swelling of the optic nerve require emergency treatment in a hospital. Central serous retinopathy — This condition usually goes away on its own.

If corticosteroid therapy can be safely reduced and discontinued, this may hasten recovery. An ophthalmologist should monitor you closely for three to six months. If the condition does not improve, laser treatment may speed healing. Call a doctor if you notice changes in your vision, particularly if they are sudden. Changes may include:. However, more advanced cases can lead to a number of eye problems, including blindness. Treatments can repair damage and slow the progress of the disease.

Advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. Hypertensive retinopathy — Most changes in the retina caused by hypertensive retinopathy disappear after blood pressure has been lowered. Some signs of damage can remain. Central serous retinopathy — Most cases go away on their own within three to four months.

Full visual acuity usually returns within six months. Lasting symptoms can include:. For persistent disease, laser treatment or photodynamic therapy a treatment using light and a chemical substance that makes certain cells sensitive to light may be offered.

Central serous retinopathy recurs in about half of affected people. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Retinopathy What Is It? Published: August,


The light-sensitive layer of retinal cells converts light into electrical signals which are then sent to the brain where they are turned into the images we see. A brilliant network of tiny blood vessels constantly supplies blood to the retina. Hyperglycemia, a condition where glucose levels in the blood are high, can affect every part of the body, including the precious eyes. The negative impact of hyperglycemia is blurry vision which is a sign of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus causes damage to the blood vessels supplying blood to the retina of the eye.

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of irreversible blindness in working-age Americans. If the physician detects signs of diabetic retinopathy, she/.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy , also known as diabetic eye disease DED , [2] is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus. It is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Diabetic retinopathy affects up to 80 percent of those who have had diabetes for 20 years or more.

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. At least 50 percent of all diabetics will develop diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina.

If you have diabetes, it is vital that you have your eyes checked regularly. Damage to the retina at the back of the eye retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes. If left untreated, it can become worse and cause some loss of vision, or total loss of vision severe sight impairment in severe cases. Good control of blood sugar glucose and blood pressure slows down the progression of retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is blood vessel damage in the retina that happens as a result of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy can cause a range of symptoms, including blurred vision, difficulty seeing colors, and eye floaters. Without treatment, it can cause vision loss.

Типичная для Испании туалетная комната: квадратная форма, белый кафель, с потолка свисает единственная лампочка. Как всегда, одна кабинка и один писсуар. Пользуются ли писсуаром в дамском туалете -неважно, главное, что сэкономили на лишней кабинке. Беккер с отвращением оглядел комнату.

Альфонсо Тринадцатый. Очень хорошо, прямо сейчас туда загляну.

Она точно окаменела. И закрыла. О Боже, пожалуйста. Не. ГЛАВА 65 Бринкерхофф мерил шагами кабинет Мидж Милкен.

 - Сегодня я не в духе. Меня огорчают твои разговоры о нашем агентстве как каком-то соглядатае, оснащенном современной техникой. Эта организация создавалась с единственной целью - обеспечивать безопасность страны.

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Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

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Он не заметил отражения, мелькнувшего за оконным стеклом рядом с. Крупная фигура возникла в дверях директорского кабинета. - Иису… - Слова застряли у Бринкерхоффа в глотке.  - Ты думаешь, что в ТРАНСТЕКСТ проник вирус. Мидж вздохнула: - А что еще это может .

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Но что. Дэвид на экране застыл в глубокой задумчивости. - Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.

Помимо всего прочего, в списке очередности указано, что это посторонний файл. Надо звонить Стратмору.


Gustave M.


Knobbe, MD.



This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina.